От Theatersperre до союзнической администрации: к вопросу об институциональной резистентности театра на примере Венской Государственной оперы и Бургтеатра, 1944–1945
The article examines the institutional crisis and transition of Vienna’s two most prestigious theatres – the State Opera and the Burgtheater, united as Federal/State Theatres – during the final stages of the Third Reich and the early period of Soviet occupation. It focuses on the transformation and Всеобщая история 37 ЛОКУС: люди, общество, культуры, смыслы. 2021. Т. 12. № 2 disintegration of power hierarchies, patronage structures and supply lines following the halt to normal seasons decreed by Goebbels in August 1944. The theatres maintained a capable and increasingly centralized administration that struggled for keeping the personnel and obtaining financial and material resources. After the loss of the two main buildings in March 1945, and much of available liquidity, internal administrative cohesion facilitated the Sovietsupported renaissance of Viennese cultural life, and the subsequent Austrian nation-building. Organizational resilience and personnel continuities were key, and often underestimated factors, that helped managing the crisis and restoring the Federal Theatres’ position and symbolic capital.
Paradigm Shifts. Patterns and dynamics of innovation processes in urban planning and design.
Through the case study of the paradigm shift from modernist housing estates to compact mixed-use urban neighbourhoods this study investigates how profound novelties enter the discipline of urban planning and design. It neither focuses on the reasons for change (why?) nor on its results (what?), instead it seeks to provide insights on how a novel approach is created, disseminated and established as new routine. It finds that the compact mixed-use city model has been collectively produced and shaped by actors in an intense search for a new consensus in a milieu of heightened uncertainty, and it was successfully spread and established by referring to pressing needs in rather arbitrary ways. The study contributes to basic research in the fields of planning theory and planning history. The object of this research is the transformation in the conceptualization and planning of new housing estates in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Austria from the 1960s until today. The field of housing estates was one of the origins of the paradigm shift under investigation. As the provision of large-scale housing continues to pose a challenge to contemporary policy makers, understanding how novelties enter this field is of high importance.
Die Österreichische Gesellschaft für Soziologie (ÖGS) wurde 1950 gegründet, begann aber erst ab Mitte der 1960er-Jahre Aktivitäten zu entfalten. Das Bemühen, ein Professionsverband zu werden, stieß an Grenzen, da derartige Organisationen in Österreich systematisch nicht vorgesehen waren und ein kleiner Verein wie die ÖGS diese Randbedingungen auch nicht zu ändern vermochte. Die ÖGS gründete 1976 eine eigene Zeitschrift, die Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie (ÖZS), die seither regelmäßig erscheint und veranstaltet regelmäßig nationale, gelegentlich auch internationale Kongresse. Darüber hinausgehende Aktivitäten fanden unregelmäßig statt und Versuche, größere politische Wirkungen zu erzielen oder Regelungskompetenzen innerhalb der Disziplin zu monopolisieren, zeitigten keinen Erfolg.
Sociology in Austria has been frequently affected by political developments in the country. This first history of sociology in Austria examines the impact of the break-up of the Habsburg Empire and of two consecutive dictatorships, which destroyed academic freedom by means of forced migration and imprisonment. Even after 1945 the re-established Second Republic did not dismiss professors promoted during the Nazi period, and failed to invite exiled academics to return home. The author argues that the result has been a continuation of favouritism and conformism, with compliance to political regimes sanctioned at the expense of meritocracy and that in the light of this chequered past we should celebrate instances of de-institutionalization.
Hyperinfations are a modern phenomenon often associated with periods of transition. By accelerating the dynamics that govern the financial, political and private spheres of life, hyperinfations necessitate a quickened decision-making process in which alternative choices are eliminated. Using the example of Austria following the First World War, this article shows that hyperinfations are likely to have a path-determining efect on multiple levels. While periods of transitions ofer the rare opportunity for countries to break with historical path dependence, hyperinfations carry the risk of creating new path dependence prematurely. By speeding up dynamics during transformative processes, hyperinfations eliminate possible alternatives that might otherwise have been chosen. Hyperinfations are thus best understood as neither the cause nor the consequence of transitions, but as their accelerating catalyst.
In 1921 Austria became the first interwar European country to experience hyperinflation. The League of Nations, among other actors, stepped in to help reconstruct the economy, but a decade later Austria’s largest bank, Credit-Anstalt, collapsed. Historians have correlated these events with the banking and currency crisis that destabilized interwar Europe—a narrative that relies on the claim that Austria and the global monetary system were the victims of financial interlopers. In this corrective history, Nathan Marcus deemphasizes the destructive role of external players in Austria’s reconstruction and points to the greater impact of domestic malfeasance and predatory speculation on the nation’s financial and political decline.
Consulting sources ranging from diplomatic dossiers to bank statements and financial analyses, Marcus shows how the League of Nations’ efforts to curb Austrian hyperinflation in 1922 were politically constrained. The League left Austria in 1926 but foreign interests intervened in 1931 to contain the fallout from the Credit-Anstalt collapse. Not until later, when problems in the German and British economies became acute, did Austrians and speculators exploit the country’s currency and compromise its value. Although some statesmen and historians have pinned Austria’s—and the world’s—economic implosion on financial colonialism, Marcus’s research offers a more accurate appraisal of early multilateral financial supervision and intervention.
Illuminating new facets of the interwar political economy, Austrian Reconstruction and the Collapse of Global Finance reckons with the true consequences of international involvement in the Austrian economy during a key decade of renewal and crisis.
The article examines the commemorative events of the 100th anniversary of the German and Austrian revolution, the role of various discursive actors and those key toposs that were emphasized or left in the shadows at various levels of discourse. The official festivities, with the participation of federal presidents and chancellors, reproduced the consensus narrative of the republican period in the history of both countries as a path to liberal democracy, where radical alternatives to the right and left were mentioned in the context of Nazism, and their own communist movements were practically not mentioned. National media do not show significant differences, with the exception of the emphasized involvement of experts in their memorial products, when political historians (Austria) and constitutional lawyers (Germany) took center stage. Regional aspects were present in Weimar and Kiel, but the Bavarian Soviet Republic was virtually excluded. Thus, the spread of “knowledge-power” was characterized by the unification of a centralist narrative, in which the path to modern parliamentary democracy stood out at the expense of radical alternatives.
Hyperinflations are a modern phenomenon often associated with periods of transition. By accelerating the dynamics that govern the financial, political and private spheres of life, hyperinflations necessitate a quickened decision-making process in which alternative choices are eliminated. Using the example of Austria following the First World War, this article shows that hyperinflations are likely to have a path-determining effect on multiple levels. While periods of transitions offer the rare opportunity for countries to break with historical path dependence, hyperinflations carry the risk of creating new path dependence prematurely. By speeding up dynamics during transformative processes, hyperinflations eliminate possible alternatives that might otherwise have been chosen. Hyperinflations are thus best understood as neither the cause nor the consequence of transitions, but as their accelerating catalyst.