Biliteracy and acquisition of novel written words: the impact of phonological conflict between L1 and L2 scripts
The acquisition of new orthographic representations is a rapid and accurate process in proficient monolingual readers. The present study used biliterate and bialphabetic population to address the impact of phonological inconsistencies across the native (L1) and second (L2) alphabets. Naming latencies were collected from 50 Russian–English biliterates through a reading-aloud task with familiar and novel word forms repeated across 10 blocks. There were three Script conditions: (1) native Cyrillic, (2) non-native Roman, and (3) Ambiguous (with graphically identical, but phonologically inconsistent graphemes shared by both alphabets). Our analysis revealed the main effect of Script on both reading and orthographic learning: naming latencies during training were longer for the ambiguous stimuli, particularly for the novel ones. Nonetheless, novel word forms in the ambiguous condition approached the latencies for the familiar words along the exposures, although this effect was faster in the phonologically consistent trials. Post-training tests revealed similarly successful performance patterns for previously familiar and newly trained forms, indicating successful rapid acquisition of the latter. Furthermore, we found the highest free recall rates for the ambiguous stimuli. Overall, our results indicate that phonological inconsistency initially interferes with the efficiency of novel word encoding. Nevertheless, it does not prevent efficient attribution of orthographic representations; instead, the knowledge of two distinct alphabets supports a more efficient learning and a better memory for ambiguous stimuli via enhancing their encoding and retrieval.
The article focuses on the reasons causing authors to write the non-expanded (single) participle ranenny with double N against the conventional recommended norm fixed in the dictionaries and reference books. There are pragmatic, semantic and syntactic factors under scrutiny -- all these influence the doubling of suffix N: there can be meanings of Result and Cause realized by a word in the specific lexical context; intensification of attribute during nomination; occurrence of participles and particles in the proximate context (within the limits of the sentence).
The acquisition of new orthographic representations is a rapid and highly automatic process in monolingual readers. Our study extends existing research to biliterate populations, addressing the impact of phonological inconsistencies across native (L1) and second language (L2) alphabets during orthographic learning. Behavioral and EEG signals were collected from a group of 24 Russian-English biliterates via a reading-aloud task using familiar and novel words repeated across ten consecutive blocks in three Script conditions: (1) native Cyrillic, (2) non-native Roman, and (3) ambiguous (phonologically inconsistent graphemes shared by L1 and L2 alphabets). Linear mixed-effects modelling of both behavioral and ERP data revealed reliable Block x Lexicality x Script interactions, indicating that naming latencies and brain activity changed differently across training blocks for novel and familiar words and, importantly, depending on script presentation. Particularly, novel words presented in the ambiguous script showed longer naming latencies and slower reading automatization than those presented in L1 and L2 alphabets. Nonetheless, despite this interference, their naming latencies matched those of familiar words before the end of the training, suggesting the attribution of their representations in the reader's lexicon. The enhancement of early brain responses observed for these stimuli alongside their training confirmed the improvement in their orthographic analysis and lexical access. Critically, this pattern of results was not found for familiar, already represented words, which exhibited a suppression of their brain activity across repetitions. Overall, our results indicate that phonological inconsistency interferes with novel word encoding but it does not prevent efficient attribution of orthographic representations.
The color-word Stroop is a popular measure in psychological assessments. Evidence suggests that Stroop performance relies heavily on reading, an ability that improves over childhood. One way to influence reading proficiency is by orthographic manipulations. To determine the degree of interference posed by orthographic manipulations with development, in addition to standard color-Words (purple) we manipulated letter-positions: First/last letter in correct place (prulpe) and Scrambled (ulrpep). We tested children 7–16 years (n = 128) and adults (n = 23). Analyses showed that Word- and First/last-incongruent were qualitatively similar, whereas Word-congruent was different than other conditions. Results suggest that for children and adults, performance was hindered the most for incongruent and incorrectly spelled words and was most facilitated when words were congruent with the ink color and correctly spelled. Implications on visual word recognition and reading are discussed.
This volume examines the unique characteristics of akshara orthography and how they may affect literacy development and problems along with the implications for assessment and instruction. Even though akshara orthography is used by more than a billion people, there is an urgent need for a systematic attempt to bring the features, research findings, and future directions of akshara together in a coherent volume. We hope that this volume will bridge that gap.
Akshara is used in several Indic languages, each calling it by a slightly different name, for example 'aksharamu', in Telugu, 'akshara' in Kannada, and 'akshar' in Hindi. It is the Bhrami-derived orthography used across much of the Indian subcontinent. There is a growing body of research on the psycholinguistic underpinnings of learning to read akshara, and the emerging perspective is that akshara, even though classified as alphasyllabaries, abugida, and semi-syllabic writing systems, is neither alphabetic nor syllabic. Rather, akshara orthography is unique and deserves to be a separate classification and needs further investigation relating to literacy acquisition in akshara. The chapters in this volume, written by leading authors in the field, will inform the reader of the current research on akshara in a coherent and systematic way.
This paper describes a weighted finite-state morphological transducer for Crimean Tatar able to analyse and generate in both Latin and Cyrillic orthographies. This transducer was developed by a team including a community member and language expert, a field linguist who works with the community, a Turkologist with computational linguistics expertise, and an experienced computational linguist with Turkic expertise. Dealing with two orthographic systems in the same transducer is challenging as they employ different strategies to deal with the spelling of loan words and encode the full range of the language’s phonemes and their interaction. We develop the core transducer using the Latin orthography and then design a separate transliteration transducer to map the surface forms to Cyrillic. To help control the non-determinism in the orthographic mapping, we use weights to prioritise forms seen in the corpus. We perform an evaluation of all components of the system, finding an accuracy above 90% for morphological analysis and near 90% for orthographic conversion. This comprises the state of the art for Crimean Tatar morphological modelling, and, to our knowledge, is the first biscriptual single morphological transducer for any language.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.