Ценностные ориентиры и опыт неолиберальных реформ в российских регионах: дилеммы социального менеджмента
The article offers sociological perspective on the reform of social services in the Russian regions frames of the New Public Management (NPM) in the context of the developing inter-sector cooperation in the emerging quasi-markets of social services. These reforms imply not only the renewal of management philosophy and tools, but also changes at the cultural level. In this regard, the study is aimed at identifying how social managers explain the need for a transition to new relations, what tools they have, what value contradictions arise in the field of decision-making on the issues of reforming the system of social services and in the practice of management.
The study is based on the analysis of semi-structured interviews with regional administrators and managers of social services of various legal forms. Interviews address the challenges faced by the informants during reforms in the framework of the new social management (NPM). These reforms not only modify management philosophy and tools but also restructure the worldviews and practices of service providers and users. In this regard, the study is aimed at identifying how NPM values are interpreted by the actors of transformation of social service system in the Russian regions. The study was conducted within the critical and interpretative traditions of sociology of management and showed that heads of organizations and regional administrators share values of and put into practice the tools of the new public management, but they are faced with the immanent inconsistency of this doctrine. Client-centeredness and initiative are not so easy to bring in concert with the requirements of efficiency. Decentralization does not help avoid close monitoring, while quality of services is difficult to maintain under the conditions of rationalization. Nevertheless, the discourses of budget saving and humanization of services do not always contradict each other, as managers strive to compromise different logics in the relationship between the state, an organization, employees and clients.
This volume discusses post-socialist urban transport functioning and development in Russia, within the context of the country’s recent transition towards a market economy. Over the past twenty-five years, urban transport in Russia has undergone serious transformations, prompted by the transitioning economy. Yet, the lack of readily available statistical data has led to a gap in the inclusion of Russia in the body of international transport economics research. By including ten chapters of original, cutting-edge research by Russian transport scholars, this book will close that gap. Discussing topics such as the relationship between urban spatial structure and travel behavior in post-soviet cities, road safety, trends and reforms in urban public transport development, transport planning and modelling, and the role of institutions in post-soviet transportation management, this book provides a comprehensive survey of the current state of transportation in Russia. The book concludes with a forecast for future travel development in Russia and makes recommendations for future policy. This book will be of interest to researchers in transportation economics and policy as well as policy makers and those working in the field of urban and transport planning.
As NGOs are emerging into prominent actors in international politics, the issue of measuring their political capability and efficiency draws particular interest. The paper offers a critical overview of core theoretical approaches to evaluating NGOs as politically accountable actors of global civil society.
The label “performance management" encompasses a diverse range of managerial tools used to define goals, create plans, allocate managerial discretion, measure outcomes and reward performance.
In the Russian practice of public management of such a kind, tools have been introduced not as parts of a prearranged and logically coordinated system, rather as and when the need has arisen for them, with approbation during the course of application and turning away from methods that have not proved themselves, meaning by a process of trial and error. In line with this, the sections of this chapter have been arranged not in the logic of a holistic performance management system, rather as a chronological order of decision making on the introduction of given tools.
The process of introducing performance management tools began in Russia in 2004 from a departmental level. It was from this year that so-called reports on performance and key activities of federal executive authorities were drawn up which, in essence, were their indicative plans. This tool still remains in management practice. It is to this that the first section of this chapter is dedicated.
The second section addresses performance management tools of a higher level required to determine and substantiate national objectives, coordinate and balance departmental plans. Such targeted management tools of a federal level consider the concept of long-term development, the main activities of government and sector-based state programs.
The next section is devoted to the tool designed for budgeting at public institutions, which has come to be known as the “government assignment”. On the one hand the government assignment contains a plan pertaining to the volume and the quality of the work and the services of an organization while, on the other, pertaining to the volume funds, allocated to execute the set work and services. Thus, this tool to the greatest extent reflects the principles of performance-based budgeting and assumes a tying in of the volume and quality of services with budget allocations.
The fourth section covers administrative regulations and standards in public services. These tools are used in government bodies to establish standards for quality of service and interaction with the general public and non-governmental organizations.
Finally, in recent years, Russia has seen a fairly broad application of various tools for assessing the activity of federal, regional and municipal authorities, including that of the heads of authorities. These tools are described in the fifth section.
This article addresses the challenges faced by NGOs in contemporary Russia. The author tries to trace the strategies of such organizations in view of new legislation about "foreign agents" and to prove the changing of a model of collaboration between the third sector and authorities.
The online edition contains mental maps of all major Russian macroregions & some regions & cities of Russia, representing ethnic, cultural & geographical specificity of the territories. Unique regional images & their localization are combined in vivid textual & visual materials, mental maps & regional onomasticons.
For the experts specialized in cultural geography & geihumanities, regional & local studies, cartography, and for a wider audience of those interested in geographical diversity of Russia.
In the article the international experience of management of employment in the public sector is shown, corresponding numerical calculations are given, the thought on possibility of its use in Russia is stated. The author believes that transfer of some functions into outsourcing in frameworks of the policy of the new public management (NPM) can be one of directions of perfection of the management of employment efficiency and payment in the public sector. Simultaneously he expresses his conviction that reduction of the number of the occupied should not be mechanical, but the thought over and gradual process assuming simultaneous increase of efficiency of activity in the sphere of the public management.
Article is dedicated to analysis of the so-called state-public and public-state associations legal status. The author argues inconsistency of their status with characteristics of associations to which Article 30 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation guarantees freedom of association.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.