Peer influence in adolescent drinking behavior: A meta-analysis of stochastic actor-based modeling studies
To measure the effects of peer influence and peer selection on drinking behavior in adolescence through a rigorous statistical approach designed to unravel these interrelated processes.
We conducted systematic searches of electronic databases, thesis collections and conference proceedings to identify studies that used longitudinal network design and stochastic actor-oriented modeling to analyze drinking behavior in adolescents. Parameter estimates collected from individual studies were analyzed using multilevel random-effects models.
We identified 26 articles eligible for meta-analysis. Meta-analyses for different specifications of the peer influence effect were conducted separately. The peer influence effect was positive for every specification: for average similarity (avSim) mean log odds ratio was 1.27 with 95% confidence interval [0.04; 2.49]; for total similarity (totSim) 0.46 (95% CI = [0.44; 0.48]), and for average alter (avAlt) 0.70 (95% CI = [-0.01; 1.41]). The peer selection effect (simX) was also positive: 0.46 (95% CI = [0.28; 0.63]). Conversion log odds ratio values to Cohen’s d gives estimates from 0.25 to 0.70, which is considered as medium to large effect.
Advances in methodology for social network analysis have made it possible to accurately estimate peer influence effects free from peer selection effects. More research is necessary to clarify the roles of age, gender, and individual susceptibility on the changing behavior of adolescents under the influence of their peers. Understanding the effects of peer influence should inform practitioners and policy makers to design and deliver more effective prevention programs.
The sixth SNA-KDD workshop (www.snakdd.com) is proposed as the sixth in a successful series of workshops on social network mining and analysis co-held with KDD, soliciting experimental and theoretical work on social network mining and analysis in both online and offline social network systems.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Machine Learning and Data Mining in Pattern Recognition, MLDM 2014, held in St. Petersburg, Russia in July 2014. The 40 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 128 submissions. The topics range from theoretical topics for classification, clustering, association rule and pattern mining to specific data mining methods for the different multimedia data types such as image mining, text mining, video mining and Web mining.
This article is an expanded version of the report submitted by the author on V scientific and practical conference dedicated to the memory of the first Dean of the Faculty of Sociology HSE Alexander O. Kryshtanovskiy "Sociological research methods in modern practice". The article is based on a study of the quantative data obtained in the course of one of the stages of the study "New social movements of youth" by Center of Youth Studies HSE - SaintPetersburg. At this stage, youth community mapping was conducted and analysis of the data using SNA tools was organised. The issue of this work is related to the specific application of network theory and network analysis methods in the process of discovering relations between various informal organisations on the example of youth communities.
The concept and aim of evidence-based entrepreneurship (EBE) is discussed as a strategy to overcome the divide between knowledge developed in the field of entrepreneurship and its use in practice. We argue that meta-analyses can and should be used in entrepreneurship research (and that it should also be used for qualitative work).
The CCIS series is devoted to the publication of proceedings of computer science conferences. Its aim is to efficiently disseminate original research results in informatics in printed and electronic form. While the focus is on publication of peer-reviewed full papers presenting mature work, inclusion of reviewed short papers reporting on work in progress is welcome, too. Besides globally relevant meetings with internationally representative program committees guaranteeing a strict peer-reviewing and paper selection process, conferences run by societies or of high regional or national relevance are also considered for publication.
The paper uses meta-analysis to investigate the evolution of returns to education in Russia during the economic transition. We present the evidence of strong increase in returns to education in the 1990s. The returns to education peaked at 8% per additional year of schooling in the early 2000s. Since the mid-2000s the positive trend has been reversed. We find that the estimated returns are sensitive to sample design, specification and estimation methods. On average the estimated returns are higher if one uses imputed (instead of actual) years of education and estimates earnings equation with the OLS. Among covariates, the form of ownership and settlement type (urban/ rural) has the largest effect on the estimated returns to education. Regional variables have significant impact on the estimated returns only being included into the earnings equation at the oblast (province) level.
The subject of this article is a research on interregional differences in volume and structure of alcohol consumption based on official statistical data and testing of a hypothesis about various macroeconomic factors influencing alcohol consumption. This testing was carried out with regression analysis method on the basis of data from regions of the Russian Federation. Indicators used in the analysis were received from official state statistics' sources that are free to access on respective web-sites. Due to the lack of data on alcohol consumption by regions, sales rates of alcohol beverages in per capita volume terms (broken down by commodity) were used as proxy variables of alcohol consumption. On account of information on percentage of spirit in all alcohol products under review per capita indices of absolute alcohol consumption were estimated for each region specifically, contribution of each product into its forming was also assessed.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.