Disclosing biosynthetic connections and functions of atypical angucyclinones with a fragmented C-ring
The unusual framework of the middle C-ring, “broken” as a result of biotransformations and oxidations in vivo and bearing an sp3-C connection, is of interest for biosynthetic investigations. The reported 39 natural compounds (55 including stereoisomers) have been analyzed and arranged into three structural groups. The biosynthetic origin of all these compounds has been thoroughly reviewed and revised, based on the found connections with oxidized angucyclinone structures. The data on biological activities has been summarized. Careful consideration of the origin of the structure allowed us to outline a hypothesis on the biological function as well as prospective applications of such atypical angucyclinones.
Endophytic actinobacteria are one of the important pharmaceutical resources and well known for producing different types of bioactive substances. Nevertheless, detection of the novelty, diversity, and bioactivity on endophytic actinobacteria isolated from mangrove plants are scarce. In this study, five different mangrove plants, Avicennia marina, Aegiceras corniculatum, Kandelia obovota, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and Thespesia populnea, were collected from Beilun Estuary National Nature Reserve in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A total of 101 endophytic actinobacteria strains were recovered by culture-based approaches. They distributed in 7 orders, 15 families, and 28 genera including Streptomyces, Curtobacterium, Mycobacterium, Micrococcus, Brevibacterium, Kocuria, Nocardioides, Kineococcus, Kytococcus, Marmoricola, Microbacterium, Micromonospora, Actinoplanes, Agrococcus, Amnibacterium, Brachybacterium, Citricoccus, Dermacoccus, Glutamicibacter, Gordonia, Isoptericola, Janibacter, Leucobacter, Nocardia, Nocardiopsis, Pseudokineococcus, Sanguibacter, and Verrucosispora. Among them, seven strains were potentially new species of genera Nocardioides, Streptomyces, Amnibacterium, Marmoricola, and Mycobacterium. Above all, strain 8BXZ-J1 has already been characterized as a new species of the genus Marmoricola. A total of 63 out of 101 strains were chosen to screen antibacterial activities by paper-disk diffusion method and inhibitors of ribosome and DNA biosynthesis by means of a double fluorescent protein reporter. A total of 31 strains exhibited positive results in at least one antibacterial assay. Notably, strain 8BXZ-J1 and three other potential novel species, 7BMP-1, 5BQP-J3, and 1BXZ-J1, all showed antibacterial bioactivity. In addition, 21 strains showed inhibitory activities against at least one “ESKAPE” resistant pathogens. We also found that Streptomyces strains 2BBP-J2 and 1BBP-1 produce bioactive compound with inhibitory activity on protein biosynthesis as result of translation stalling. Meanwhile, Streptomyces strain 3BQP-1 produces bioactive compound inducing SOS-response due to DNA damage. In conclusion, this study proved mangrove plants harbored a high diversity of cultivable endophytic actinobacteria, which can be a promising source for discovery of novel species and bioactive compounds.
This volume, being the 55th of this Series, contains a wealth of information on bioactive natural products. In Chapter 1, Watson and colleagues have discussed the synthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids, an important class of structurally diverse natural products, with respect to conventional and biomimetic synthetic approaches.
Titanocene(III) has been widely used in the synthesis of complex organic molecules and natural products including polyketides, phenylpropanoids, antibiotics, and alkaloids. Oltra and coworkers have provided a review on the stereoselective synthesis of natural products facilitated by titanocene(III) in Chapter 2.
About 70 biologically active macrocyclic bisbibenzyls (MBBs) have been isolated and structurally elucidated during the last 30 years. Song and Zhao, in Chapter 3, have provided a review on the synthesis of MBBs with diverse pharmacological properties.
Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine/metabolic disorder that poses a global health concern. Reyes and colleagues have discussed the hypoglycemic activity of some terrestrial and marine bioactive compounds with potential for treating type 2 diabetes in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, Pietruszka and coworkers have highlighted the importance of some marine oxylipins that exhibit different bioactive properties.
Depression has become a psychiatric disorder, which leads to various disabilities. Natural compounds like polyphenols and terpenoids have antioxidant and neuroprotective properties and can be used for the treatment of depression. In Chapter 6, Rodrigues et al. review the clinical studies and trials on polyphenols and terpenoids for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. The lipid A phosphate and their phosphorylated analogues found in Gram-negative bacteria are of major importance because they provide the host with defense against infections from various microorganisms. Paradies and Zimmermann have discussed physical characteristics, isolation, and bioactivity of lipopolysaccharides (lipid A) for developing new vaccines and therapeutics in Chapter 7.
Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are a group of phytonutrients with numerous beneficial effects on human health that are largely derived from plants. HCAs play important roles like defense against UV rays or pathogenic attack during growth and development of plants. In Chapter 8, El-Seedi and colleagues present a review focusing on the therapeutic effects of HCAs for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, pulmonary, hepatic, neuro-, and cardiovascular diseases. In Chapter 9, Pomilio and Mercader have presented the study of natural anthocyanins and other related flavonoids for the readers, highlighting their possible and preferable uses as health-protecting food dyes over synthetic ones. They have also discussed the anthocyanins isolated from Ipomoea cairica along with their QSAR studies.
Cardiovascular diseases are considered to be a major threat to health. Polyphenols and carotenoids are structurally diverse groups of bioactive compounds isolated from fruits and vegetables, carrying protective effects against endothelial dysfunction. These therapeutic effects have been explored by Yamagata in Chapter 10.
The roots of licorice and ivy leaves have been used in folk medicine and drugs since long. The biological activity of these complexes has been discussed by Yakovishin and Grishkovets in Chapter 11. In Chapter 12, the chemical and biological characteristics of amicoumacins and xenocoumacins are reviewed by Korshun et al. with reference to the preparation of antibiotics.
I hope that this volume will be received with the same enthusiasm as the earlier volumes of this long-standing series the first volume of which was published under my Editorship in 1988. I would like to express my gratitude to Ms. Taqdees Malik and Mr. Mahmood Alam for their assistance in the preparation of this volume.
New biologically active substances isolated from natural sources provide valuable information on structural motifs that are important for a specifi c type of activity and can also be used as drugs or serve as raw materials for chemical modifi cation in order to develop new pharmaceuticals. This review considers natural antibiotics combining two pharmacophores in their structure: a redox-active naphthoquinone moiety and a membrane-active polyol macrolide. Data on their structures and the spectrum of biological activity are summarized.
The worldwide rapid emergence of resistant bacteria put at threat the efficacy of antibiotics, thus the development of novel antibacterial agents is urgently needed. The cell wall precursor lipid II consisting the chemically conservative pyrophosphate group represents a promising pharmaceutical target. Antimicrobial peptides, that target lipid II, i.e. lantibiotic nisin, could be excellent prototypes for new generation antibiotics due to their low liability to develop resistance. Understanding of molecular mechanism of initial stages of membrane-bound lipid II recognition by water-soluble nisin is indispensable, in order to improve the peptide structure and properties into pharmaceutically applicable form. Here, we present a molecular dynamics simulation study of initial stages of the aforementioned recognition. In membrane environment, lipid II adopts very few conformations characterized by unique spatial arrangement of hydrogen bond acceptors in the pyrophosphate group at the bilayer surface. These acceptors are efficiently captured by NH groups of nisin, thus explaining its high selectivity to lipid II. Similarly, rings A and B of nisin, which are known to recognize lipid II, adopt the only stable conformation in the presence of dimethylpyrophosphate, which mimics the binding determinant of lipid II. Finally, we propose molecular model of nisin (rings A and B) / lipid II complex in bacterial membrane, which may be employed for design of novel antibiotic prototypes.
The New Russian Encyclopedia is a fundamental reference publication in 18 volumes that characterizes nature, population, economy, history, science, art, technology and other important aspects. Contains about 60,000 articles, about 30,000 biographies, about 15,000 color illustrations, maps, charts, diagrams, tables. Leaves since 2003.
We have performed a comparative analysis of the bio-oil produced by thermal liquefaction of microalgae in different solvents using high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry and GC-MS approach. Water, methanol, ethanol, butanol, isopropanol, acetonitrile, toluene, and hexane were used as solvents in which the liquefaction was performed. It was observed that all resulting oils demonstrate a considerable degree of similarity. For all samples, compounds containing 1 and 2 nitrogen atoms dominated in the positive ESI spectra, while a relative contribution of other compounds was small. In negative ESI mode, compounds having 2 to 7 oxygens were observed. Statistical analysis revealed that products can be combined in two groups depending on the solvent used for the liquefaction. To the first group, we can attribute the products obtained by using protic (alcohols) and to the second by using aprotic (acetonitrile, toluene) solvents. Nevertheless, based on our results, we concluded that solvent possesses a minor impact on molecular composition of bio-oil. We suggested that the driving force of the liquefaction reaction is the thermal dehydration of the carbohydrate in algae, resulting in water formation, which could be the trigger of the producing of bio-oil. To prove this hypothesis, we performed the reaction with the dry algae in the absence of the solvent and observed the formation of bio-oil.
The hydrogenation of diphenylacetylene (DPA) on palladium–silver catalysts with a single-atom structure was investigated. It has been shown experimentally that the reaction rate of alkene to alkane hydrogenation is substantially lower than the rate of DPA semi-hydrogenation. The kinetic barriers of all stages of hydrogenation were calculated by the DFT method.
Carboxycymantrene CymCOOH (Cym = (η5-C5H4)Mn (CO)3) was applied to assemble a series of uncommon Cd-Mn carboxylate complexes comprising 1D-polynuclear [Cd (OOCCym)(acac)]n (1) as well as oligonuclear species, [Cd2(OOCCym)4(EtOH)4)] (2), [Cd (OOCCym)2(bpy)(H2O] (3, bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine) and [Cd (OOCCym)2(phen)2]·EtOH (4, phen = 1,10-phenantroline). Compound 2 was found to be a product of irreversible SCSC transition from [Cd2(OOCCym)4(EtOH)3(H2O)]·EtOH (2_100K) initially formed in corresponding syntheses. This transition is accompanied by two-fold decrease in cell volume and increase in cell symmetry. Recrystallyzation of 2–4 from common organic solvents affects the nuclearity of products (in case of 2 and 3) or subtly alters the structure of [Cd (OOCCym)2(phen)2] units (4). The optimal Cd to Mn ratio inspired studying solid-state thermal decomposition of 2–4 as a route to CdMn2O4-based ceramics. As a result, oxide samples with a predominance of tetragonal (Cd1-xMnx)Mn2O4 spinel have been prepared and characterized by powder XRD, SEM, EDX, and IR revealing the interplay between the preparation technique and the features of morphology and composition. The retaining of Cd to Mn ratio upon recrystallyzation of 2–4 implies possibility of further elaboration of CdMn2O4-based materials in various morphologies (polycrystalline ones, films, etc.). Notably, 2–4 is also the first series of related heterometallic Cd-Mn complexes being studied as individual precursors for CdMn2O4-based oxide systems.