Personality, aggression, sensation seeking, and hormonal responses to challenge in Russian alpinists and special operation forces
Male risk-taking behavior is associated with personality traits and correlates with hormone titers, notably for testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Yet, these influences may be stronger in some individuals due to context or profession in which risk-taking occurs. We examine this possibility by investigating relationships of personality, aggression, and sensation seeking with T and C together with anthropometric measures in high risk-taking men: Russian alpinists (n = 55) and members of the Russian Special Forces (n = 33). They provided saliva samples before and after viewing a ~5 min video of aggressive male encounters and completed surveys after this task. After viewing the video, T increased in alpinists but decreased in Special Forces, and C increased in Special Forces. Alpinists scored higher than Special Forces in neuroticism and openness whereas Special Forces scored higher than alpinists in extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Verbal aggression, anger, hostility, experience seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility were higher in alpinists than in Special Forces. Our findings suggest behavioral differences in high risk-taking men, influenced by profession-related individual differences in sensation seeking and hormonal response to challenges.
We attempt to integrate the notion of responsibility into the methodology of the "psychometric paradigm", designed to identify the dimensions of risk perception. A modified version of the methodology is proposed, which includes a number of questions about various aspects of responsibility. The preliminary results show that it is possible to formulate the hypothesis of responsibility as an independent dimension of risk perception, which, however, is closely related to the “dread” factor traditionally found in this kind of research.
Sensation seeking is the characteristic that describes the behavior tending for new incentive and experience. There is some research about connection between sensation-seeking and alcohol, smoking and extreme sports. This article examines the relationship between sensation-seeking and self-protecting behavior. Self-preservation behavior is activity aimed at maintaining physical and psychological health. Sample consisted of 280 students at the age 18–26 years. Methods: Sensation-seeking scale (M. Zuckreman), psychological well-being scale (K. Ryff) and questionnaire about health. Results: high sensation-seeking stimulates sport-activity. Sensation-seeking subscales "intellectual seeking", "avoidance of changes" and "avoidance of new" negatively correlates with alcohol and smoking. Sensation-seeking and psychological well-being correlations showed that the highest aspiration to experience and thrills reduces manifestations of trust and care about other people, the desire to maintain social ties and enhances the feeling of lack of personal development.
Previous studies have highlighted the fact that the associations of cortisol with SS are still controversial (ex.: Croissant et al., 2008; Rosenblitt et al., 2001; Zuckerman, 1994). The relationship between cortisol level, sensation seeking and alcohol and smoking habits is the task of this study. Saliva samples were taken from 159 students to measure salivary cortisol concentrations. Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale was used to assess different aspects of SS. The group with high and low SS revealed no significant correlations between cortisol level and SS scores. Group with average SS scores has negative correlations between cortisol level and “sensation seeking” (r = −0.26, p < 0.01) “thrill and adventure seeking” (r = −0.29, p < 0.01). Alcohol habit positively correlates with “thrill and adventure seeking” (r = 0.41, p < 0.01) and “activity–passivity” (r = 0.43, p < 0.01) only at high level of SS. Smoking habits has no significant correlations. Cortisol level positively correlate with smoking habits (r = 0.31, p < 0.01) in group with low SS scores.
The influence of available information on personal development and on the formation of pseudo-complemented discussed in this paper. Free access to information leads to a sense of «know-it-all» and a wealth of skills and knowledge. This phenomenon can be particularly evident in children and adolescents who have not yet learned social norms, have poorly developed critical thinking and don’t know how to select and analyze information.
Sensation seeking (Zuckerman, 1971) can be seen as personality trait representing the psychological basis of adaptation strategies, formed in evolution. Higher sensations seeking (SS) is associated with reproductive behavior (Farthing, 2005 ; Cooping et al., 2013 ). Sensation-seeking correlates with status and reputation, higher SSis associated with short-term relationship (Egorova et al., 2013 ). The study sample was 280 students , ages 18-20 years . The following characteristics are assessed: sensation seeking (thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking, disinhibition, boredom susceptibility, intelligence seeking, novelty avoidance) psychological well-being (Ryff, 1989) and health protecting behavior (leisure time , drinking and smoking). Higher level of sensation-seeking was found in men sample. This allows us to consider SS as the trait contributing to reproductive behavior. Men with higher levels of SS tend to be more preferred partners. Sensation-seeking is negatively associated with a preference for sports as leisure time, regardless of gender. «Intelligence seeking», «novelty avoidance» positive correlate with a tendency to consume high strength alcohol and with smoking. Psychological well-being scales: «positive relations with others» and «personal growth» has negative correlations with the «general sensation-seeking», «experience seeking» and «thrill and adventure seeking». The facts suggest that high sensation-seeking acts in the opposite manner to different adaptive strategies . High SS leads to a focus on short-term relationship and simultaneously to low health-protecting behavior. This situation can be regarded as a preference for the traditional strategy of adaptation in terms of evolutionary psychology. Low SS on the contrary would lead to a preference strategy aimed at preserving themselves and long-term relationship. This study was supported by an Program of Strategic development of Perm state humanitarian-pedagogical university, project No. 26-F
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.