This article reviews the institutional economics researches of slavery and serfdom. The exploration of the comparative institutional advantages and disadvantages of forced labor enriches various historical studies. On the example of the Great Princedom of Moscow, author considers reasons for establishment of the serfdom and how it affected the distribution of welfare.
This article deals with the urgent legislative and criminological issues of combating trafficking of human beings. The author analyzes principal trends in slavery legislation, transformation of slavery from legal economic activity to criminal activity, and also gives a brief overview of slavery and trafficking of human beings as a social phenomenon. Main subjects of the article are Russian legislature on trafficking of human beings, its issues and drafting, comparison of the Russian criminal law on trafficking of human beings (art. 1271, 1272 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation) with corresponding propositions of the civil law of the Russian Federation (sale-purchase, permutation etc.). In the final part the article gives examples of actual legal norms, taken from legislature of the countries, leading in the process of combating trafficking of human beings (such as USA and countries of the European Union), and describes the current condition of the Russian legislature on trafficking of human beings and its expected efficiency.
The text TS 2 unearthed at Tell Sakka, some 12 km north of Damascus, and published by J.-M. Durand and F. Abdallah in the present volume, is of significant import for the reconstruction of historical geography and political history of the Late Bronze age Syria. It records a legal transaction taking place in the city of Ugulzat. The character of the transaction, a real estate transfer, makes probable the identification of the find place, Tell Sakka, as ancient Ugulzat. Apart from the newly found Tell Sakka text, Ugulzat is mentioned in various sources dating to the Middle and Late Bronze age period. The city plays a prominent role in Hittite religious and historical records, including the description of the famous One Year War fought by the king Suppiluliuma I against the Mitannian supremacy in Syria (CTH 51.I). Another important attestation of Ugulzat comes from recently published texts from Qaṭna. This evidence, however, didn’t allow a precise localisation of the toponym. The identification of Ugulzat with modern Tell Sakka brings about important additions to the current historical reconstruction. It confirms a vast territorial sway of Nuhašše lands which was already surmised by Assyriologists. It also lends support to the traditional view on Suppiluliuma’s Syrian campaign of the One Year War which presumes the Hittite advance up to the Damascus region, supposedly designated as Abina in the text of CTH 51.I. The installation of Takip-šarri on the throne of Ugulzat (CTH 51.I.A: 39–40) may be regarded as one of its episodes.
The article touches upon a historical aspect of the struggle against a slave – trade in the Russian state in XVII – XIX centuries. The major attention is paid to the collaboration with the European countries concerning a struggle against a Negroes – trade. The main intergovernmental meetings on the solution of this problem are pointed in the article, they are: the Viennese congress, conferences in London, Ahen, Berlin, Brussel. The article throws the light upon intergovernmental measures on a Negroes – trade suppression and the fact that this process is announced criminal in accordance with the internal legislation