Становление иновещания в России и за рубежом: историко-генетический и компаративистский анализ
The article provides a historical-genetic and comparative analysis of foreign broadcasting. The authors refer to the advanced experience of foreign countries (Germany, England, France, USA) and in the chronotopic aspect compare it with the peculiarities of the formation of foreign broadcasting in Russia. The main stages of the development of foreign broadcasting are highlighted. The dominant media communication channels through which foreign broadcasting activities are carried out are determined. Based on the results of the study, the authors come to the conclusion that at the first stage of its development, foreign broadcasting was not an instrument of foreign policy and rather contributed to the cultural enrichment and support of its compatriots in other countries. However, wartime predetermined the future tonality of foreign broadcasting – a propaganda focus. During the Second World War, foreign broadcasting was used in many countries to discredit the enemy, as well as to motivate the military and the population in the rear. During the Cold War, foreign broadcasting strengthened its propaganda purpose, continuing to implement in its discourse defamatory strategies against competitors and adversaries, against the background of which a new concept of “information war” was formed. In general, foreign broadcasting as a discourse strategy is mainly used in the course of geopolitical conflicts, both open and latent. In the process of evolution of media communications, an intensification of the struggle for influence on the external audience was observed, which was most clearly manifested as a result of the implementation of foreign broadcasting in the field of television, based on the audiovisual capabilities of this type of media. In the 21st century, the information struggle for the interpretation of reality and, as a consequence, the construction of public opinion on a global scale began to take place in the field of the Internet, where foreign broadcasting has acquired a global character.