Мотивация учащихся к изучению естественных наук: межстрановой анализ взаимосвязи с уровнем естественно-научной грамотности
The paper presents results of a comparative study of motivation for studying science in Russia and leading countries in science education. We explored the relationship and its strength between various types of motivation and the level of science literacy. The analysis was based on the data of the international study PISA-2015, represented by a sample of 15-year-olds (N = 6036). We found a significant positive correlation between intrinsic and achievement motivation and the level of science literacy almost in all analysed countries. At the same time, in case of intrinsic motivation — which is the strongest predictor for achievement in other countries — the increase in PISA results was lower for Russian students. On the other side, with an increase in motivation focused on academic achievement, Russian students have one of the most noticeable increases in results in comparison with leading countries. The nonlinear nature of the relationship between instrumental motivation and the PISA results for Russian students was also revealed — students with the highest and lowest levels of this type of motivation show the best results. The potential prospects of using different kinds of programs for raising motivation and achievement are discussed.
The article tackles the problem of development of the modern school mathematical education. The author of the article compares the state exams in mathematics and the mathematical Olympics of pupils. The author also describes team mathematical games for gifted pupils which took place in 2006.
Bilingual education including, on the one hand, access to dominating language, and, on the other, - teaching in minority languages or teaching only languages themselves at school is an important part of language politics of a state. In many regions we observe a paradoxical situation: school education does not promote acquisition of a disappearing language, though it is highly valued by members of community. The article considers features of teaching minority languages at school in the Russian Federation on two examples - Nivkh and Kalmyk. Interviews with parents, pupils, former pupils and teachers allow to describe teaching native language at school as a procedure of maintaining identity of community.
In this article we are talking about the early development of the educational process in one of England's North American colonies. Pennsylvania attracted many immigrants from Europe by its religious freedom. Moving to a new land, Europeans from different countries brought their way of life, including various systems of education. Therefore, at the end of the beginning of the XVII-XVIII centuries there were several different types of schools. The national education system, which appeared only in the XIX century has absorbed much of the colonists created.
The article is devoted to the spiritual and moral education (SME). Along with the author's concept of SME, an overview of axiological attitudes and orientations, an approximate set of principles, mechanisms and conditions of the spiritual and moral development of children in school is presented. The attention is paid also to the issues that cause heated debate such as religious education, the reincarnation of the traditional meaning of "spirit" and "spirituality". The need to match activities on the spiritual and moral education with a new vector of Russia's historical development that was firstly and foremost constitutionally elected and suffered in the turmoil and tragedies of Russia in the XX century. The article emphasizes that SME is the mandatory (number one) task of the school, society and state. Solving this task may indeed lead to the basic axiological consensus and spiritual revival of Russia
Recently there have been widely spread models (classifications) of educational institutions (schools) based upon regularly collected statistical data and a presupposition that all the standard indices incorporated in those models have the same meanings concerning to every possible school. The article questions this presupposition.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.