Новые потребительские практики в условиях цифровизации гражданского общества: результаты эмпирического исследования в России (Статья 2)
Russian civil society (CS) has been repeatedly referred to as weak. However, this conclusion usually takes into account only the NGO sector while leaving out of consideration formally non-organized forms of civic participation. At the same time, the latter sphere has been expanding over the past few years, for the most part, owing to various kinds of civic engagement on consumer goods and resources. The Internet has served as a powerful impetus to their development. The author centers her attention on the new practices of consumer self- organization and peer-to- peer (P2P) cooperation within online communities, ranging from donating of excess food and things to strangers and/or receiving these from strangers to collaborative consumption of goods on the basis of a temporary access (P2P online renting of physical items and housing for those who travel, carpooling). These practices are conceptualized in the context of CS changing qualitative characteristics in the digital era. To this end, the theoretical and methodological section (Paper 1) discusses the phenomenon of consumer power enhancement in the digital era, its factors, barriers and risks. A hypothetical concept is proposed to elucidate the nature of juxtaposition between online technologies and offline CS as well as the ensuing enhancement of CS social and economic role owing to the development of online P2P consumer practices. Paper 2 deals with testing the hypotheses. Based on the results of the all-Russia representative survey (N=2011, 2019), the paper for the first time presents the data on the actual and potential levels of Russians’ involvement in various types of P2P practices and evaluates the relationship between the probability of involvement in these practices, on one hand, and consumers’ prosocial characteristics and their online activity, on the other. It is shown that the development of online consumer practices cannot be solely attributed to Internet technologies. It is oftentimes a synthesis of Internet technologies development and extensive, though not always discernable, shifts in the non-digital environment: the development of CS, both formally organized and informal. However, the “social awakening” effect sparked by the Internet is also apparent and it cannot be viewed as an unlikely occurrence.
Basing on N. Kondratiev's theory of long waves, the author describes possible causes of the global financial crisis and notes that we are experiencing a time of "innovation pause. Cloud computing technology could serve as a force of changes, which can give a new impetus to information technologies development.
This paper first looks at computer-mediated communication (CMC) technologies: at their advantages and disadvantages for learning and teaching. Secondly outline of the background for the research is given: the nature of the online forums in question, the material chosen for the discussion and the task. Thirdly, the author analyses the content of the forums by year (the 2010 forum and the 2011 forum) and by the participants’ nationality (Russians and Americans). In the end some trends are voiced.
In the article the main sociological problem of social solidarity is discussed in terms of sociology of emotions. Emotions as integral part of human behavior operate on micro- and macrolevel of social structure and promote social consensus and make adjustments to normative behavior. On the basis of analysis of the body of works on sociology of emotions the author concludes that sociologists tend to study social solidarity through «moral emotions». Namely these emotions have strong effects on individual and social behavior and hold up moral order and social solidarity. In the author’s opinion moral emotions are the part of emotional regimes, which are developed in social order and support social solidarity.
This is a compilation of all presentations given at the 14th Central Asia Media Confirence, organized by the Representativ’s office, which brought together international and local experts from five Central Asia participating States of the OBSE. This publication is designed to serve as a record of the events of that conference and is intended for journalists, government and regulatory officials and students.
Market growth of personal medical device comes from a number of factors: • Aging population requiring more attention; • Patients with chronic diseases may measure blood pressure and blood glucose at home; • Reducing the cost of these devices; • Ease of use and availability of medical devices; • Risen cost of a series of medical tests. This article discusses the new challenges that arise in the relationship doctor - patient in the remote Monitoring human healthcare. With the advent of a greater variety of low-cost medical devices, as well as low-cost high-quality mobile communication system will allow the system to tell the Remote Healthcare Monitoring System has also become possible. This system should be as ready to doctors and patients themselves. there is a new quality in the interaction between doctor and patient. Considers a new model of doctor-patient relationship in the light of the transfer of active interaction to the virtual world.
This volume collects the research articles, tool demonstrations, posters, tutorials, and keynote speeches presented at the 13th International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE 2013). The discipline of Web engineering is a special branch of the broader area of software engineering that specifically focuses on the World Wide Web and the Internet.
Informational noise is one of the main ecological problems of the communicative environment. The virtualization of the consumer society through Internet highly increases the amount of noise. We undertook a pilot study of the effect of noise on information consumption on the web by methods of participant observation and indepth interviews with active users. We suggested the typology of informational noise, the parameters to assess the strength of its influence and the possible transformation of consumer practices under its influence.
In this exploratory study, we examined several interethnic ideologies held by individuals (assimilation, colorblindness, multiculturalism, and polyculturalism) from a social ecological perspective. We examined moderation effects of neighborhood ethnic density (ED) on relationships between interethnic ideologies and intergroup bias towards various minority ethnic groups in the Russian context. Intergroup bias was assessed as a composite score of bias toward four ethnic groups who have different cultural distances from the Russian mainstream population: Chechens, Belarusians, Uzbeks, and Chinese. We obtained a gender balanced sample of ethnic Russians from the Central Federal District of Russia (N = 359) comprising of 47% women and 53% men. The measures were used in a Russian translation by an adaptation using the back-translation and cognitive interviews. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the relationships. The results showed that high perceived neighborhood non-Russian ED weakened negative relations between intergroup bias and ideologies that purportedly accept cultural diversity (multiculturalism and polyculturalism). On the other hand, for interethnic ideologies those purportedly reject cultural diversity, high perceived neighborhood non-Russian ED weakened the positive relations between intergroup bias and assimilation and strengthened the negative relations between intergroup bias and colorblindness. The pattern of results suggests that the relationship between attitudes and intergroup bias may change based on the perceived ethnic composition of the local area and frequency of contacts. Although our findings are relatively novel they support the emerging view that attitudes and intergroup relations need to be studied from a social ecological context.
The present paper discusses perspectives of Activity Theory (AT) in the context of contemporary globalizing world, describing which we refer to the notion “De-structuralized modernity” (Sorokin & Froumin, 2020). Radical changes in everyday life challenge social sciences and humanities. Approaches are in demand, which have the potential to comprehend the changing human étant and éntre. We argue that Activity Theory has the potential to face these challenges. Leontiev’s AT grounds on the idea of qualitatively new mental features arising to deal with novel environmental challenges, which is much in line with J.M. Baldwin reasoning on evolution. AT also offers a method to prognosis the upcoming neoplasms. In the same time, applying classics of AT to the current reality, “De-structuralized modernity”, entails the need for new theoretical elaborations of the latter, stemming from the radical transformation of the relations between individual and socio-cultural environments. A unique societal context emerges on the global level, which, on the one hand, requires individual to adapt constantly to changing socio-cultural reality, and, on the other hand, dramatically expands his/her potential for proactive actorhood transforming surrounding structures. We argue that the major and novel challenge for the individual is the task of maintaining the integrity and coherence of the a) Self-identity and b) system of links in and with the socio-cultural environment - in their dynamics and unity. The notion of “culture” has particular relevance and importance in this context because it allows grasping simultaneously two dimensions in their dynamic dialectical interrelations. First, the “internal” (“subjective”, “in the minds”) and “external” (“objective”, material and institutional environment) realities. Second, individual (“micro”) and societal (“macro”) scales of human activities. Discussing the ways to understand these dynamics, we dispute the popular “constitutive view” on personality and refer to the concept of the “ontological shift” (Mironenko & Sorokin, 2018). We also highlight how technological advancements change and “expand” human nature making it capable to deal with the outlined new tasks.
The article deals with the ways Russian authorities have constructed the social problem of HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome) in Russia. The statistical construction of HIV/AIDS includes data indicating the significant rise of HIV prevalence in Russia since 2000. The study focuses on what and how Russian authorities speak about HIV/AIDS, while there are official data on the rapid spread of the virus in the country. The work is based on a discourse analysis of the authorities’ rhetoric about HIV/AIDS. During his first presidential terms, Vladimir Putin constructed HIV/AIDS not as an epidemic in the country, but as a “global problem,” representing Russia as a participant in international efforts to combat AIDS. The president problematized the HIV spread through the rhetoric of endangerment but without its crucial term “epidemic,” while at the same time de-problematized HIV in Russia by the strategy of naturalizing (“this is a problem that all countries face”). The Russian authorities appealed to traditional moral values and spoke about marginal or risk groups, rather than risk practices. After the deterioration of relations with Western countries since 2007, the Russian president excluded HIV/AIDS problem from his public agenda, despite the existence of the data on steep HIV growth in Russia. The Russian president’s traditionalism, de-problematization, and silence concerning HIV/AIDS lead to the absence of the HIV/AIDS issues in media agenda, the agenda of local authorities, and consequently the personal agendas of Russian citizens. The consequences are ignorance, fears, stigmatization of people living with HIV, semi-legal status of needle, and syringe exchange programs for intravenous drug users, low antiretroviral therapy coverage, and the continuing HIV epidemic.