Система оценивания достижений школьников в традиционной и развивающей системах обучения: психолого-педагогический анализ
The use of grades in school education is a worldwide practice, while the traditional system of assessing knowledge is being criticized. Many educational systems around the world offer various alternative assessment systems, from criteria-based assessment to formative assessment. This publication presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the two most common systems for assessing knowledge and skills in Russian schools - the traditional mark and assessment in the system of developmental education of D. B. Elkonina-V.V. Davydov, suggesting the introduction of a system of criteria for assessing educational achievements of various types, self-assessment procedures, mutual assessment, non-emphasis on the results of assessment and comparisons of children.
Two empirical studies were carried out on a sample of primary school students studying in two educational systems - grade and with the abolition of the traditional system of assessing knowledge. With the help of a projective methodology (Wishes for the magician, Questions for the wise man), a comparative study of the degree of concern about the assessments of schoolchildren in grades 3-4 of students in the traditional system of education (TO) and developmental (RO) was carried out. The results of the content analysis of the spontaneous desires of children and their questions to the sage (N (TO) = 327, N (RO) = 153) show that children from TO classes are more concerned about school grades than children from RO classes and only in these (TO ) classes had responses that emphasized formal assessments and achievements to the detriment of meaningful results.
The results of the second study (N (TO) = 309, N (RO) = 78) confirm that assessments can have different meanings and take a different place in the structure of internal and external learning motivation and perseverance, having a different motivating function in children learning using different knowledge assessment systems. The results obtained testify in favor of constructing assessment in the logic of the system of developmental education, more differentiated, meaningful and objective, initially carried out together with the child, supporting the values of search, initiative, independent thinking and collective discussions, to a lesser extent accentuating external control and diligence.