Cooperative Enterprises in Cuba: Institutional Forms and Development Trends
Cuba has been undergoing a process of economic transition in which cooperatives have been prioritized for their ability to produce desperately needed food products and other outputs while promoting Cuban social values, but reality has proven this to be a rather daunting task. Three agricultural models and one non-agricultural model have been in operation over the past several decades, yet have developed along different trajectories. In the current work, the contemporary state of the cooperative sector since the implementation of the reforms of Raul Castro is considered with specific investigations into the economic and social aspects of each cooperative model. The main takeaways provided by the author are; (1) the UBPC model still lacks the necessary autonomy to perform efficiently while the CCS model has had particular success in production and in the incorporation of the small farmers in rapidly expanding private sector; (2) the social needs of the cooperative, material needs and education, are vital to the success of the cooperative and could be used as a means to draw more of the population back to these positions. (3) collaboration is beneficial for the cooperatives and could help solve some of the issues associated with the Cuban transition.