Causality and Blame Judgments of Negative Side Effects of Actions May Differ for Different Institutional Domains
Cognitive factors are known to influence lay assessments of causality and blame for negative side effects of intentional actions but specific social determinants of such assessments remain relatively unexplored. In a full-factorial, intraindividual experiment using two blocks of analogous vignettes constructed for two particular institutional action domains (“medical” and “corporate dress code”), we tested the propositions that causality and blame judgments differ between (a) domains and depend on (b) the type of action originator; (c) the type of damage; and (d) the “remoteness” of damage from the originator. Our data demonstrate a significant difference between two institutional action domains: actors in “medical”-related vignettes are generally estimated to be more causally effective and blameworthy than actors in “dress code”–related vignettes. In addition to the pronounced main effects of institutional domain as a factor influencing cause and blame judgments, we revealed few significant interaction effects of the latter with other experimental factors used for vignettes construction.
This article is devoted to the history of dating the artwork on the murals of the Church of the Nativity of the Mother of God in Bethania, Georgia. G.G. Gagarin, who was the first to study the cathedral, identified the portraits of Georgian royalty - Giorgi III, his daughter, Tamara, and her son, Lasha Giorgi. Later these portraits and along with them the entire artwork began to be dated 1207, which was accepted by the academic community. However, the wall painting program of the church also includes portraits of the owners of Bethania, from the Orbeli clan, who were annihilated by Tsar Giorgi III as conspirers in 1177. This raises the question (first put forth by E.L. Prtvalova) of the identities of the portrayed church wardens and of the actual time of the appearance of the Tsar family's and church wardens' portraits in Bethania. The author of the study substantiates the new attribution of the portrayed individuals and proposes new approaches to establishing the true dates of the creation of this important monument of Medieval Georgian art.
The article deals with verbal strategies of hidden emotional impact used in order to comply with the rules of politeness, to mitigate the negative appraisal. The analysis are made on the material of a stylized German speaking involving elements of discourse analysis - taking into account the objectives, situational context and other parameters.
The article focuses on temporal localization of events in constructions with causative verbs of emotions in Russian, such as (vz)besit’ ‘drive crazy’, udivit’ / udivljat’ ‘surprise’, or (ob)radovat’ ‘rejoice’. In other words, the question is how the embedded event (the cause / reason of emotion) is localized in time with respect to the main event (the emotion itself). We claim that restrictions are different for different verbs and that the nature of restrictions depends on the nature of emotion. For instance, surprise is an emotion oriented retrospectively: someone is surprised with P because P contradicts the general tendency observed in past (and present). By contrast, joy is an emotion that is often oriented prospectively. Something rejoices a person because it will have positive consequences.
Tendencies observed in the article are mainly traced for verbs. However, we show that predicatives (predicative adverbials), such as like xorošo ‘(it is) good’ and stranno ‘(it is) strange’ form pairs similar to pairs of verbs. Thus, the temporal orientation is a feature of emotion (on the semantic level), rather than of a concrete verb.
In this paper, I try to demonstrate how critical empiricism and philosophical reasoning intertwine with each other and affected the development of medicine. It is a case study considering the problems of generation and semen in the writings of Aristotle and Galen via relationship between such concepts as matter, form, movement, change, causes and some others. The main question addressed in the paper is the reason of Galen’s return to Hippocratic paradigm of two-semina (male and female). I argue that the reason is two-fold: 1) Different philosophical reasoning and erroneous understanding of some aspects of Aristotle’s embryological model by Galen. 2) Empirical discoveries, which proved to be wrong. I demonstrate that Galen’s understanding of form/matter relationship, and his view on matter as an underling principle conditioned his understanding of the notion of physical change, that allowed him to speak about conception only as quantitative mixture between equal substrata. Finally, I show that Galen’s view on teleology and his limited understanding of formal/final vs efficient causes and their relationship forced him to claim the inadequacy of Aristotle’s biology and necessitated Galen to introduce emendations in definitions of seminal faculties of genders and reproductive fluids.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.