Iodine and bromine in fish consumed by indigenous peoples of the Russian Arctic
Fish muscle may constitute one of the main sources of iodine (I) for the indigenous peoples of the Russian Arctic, although limited information is available about its content in commonly consumed fish species. In the current study, bromine (Br), I, the essential elements (copper, selenium and zinc) and other non-essential elements — specifically mercury, arsenic (As), cadmium, lead and nickel — have been quantified in 10 fish species consumed by people living in the Nenets and Chukotka Regions. Fish muscle was analysed by ICP-MS after nitric acid or tetramethylammonium hydroxide digestion. Certified reference materials were employed and concentrations are reported as geometric means (GMs). Atlantic cod (6.32 mg/kg) and navaga (0.934 mg/kg) contained substantially higher amounts of I than all other fish species, while broad whitefish had the lowest (0.033 mg/kg). By comparison, navaga contained more Br (14.5 mg/kg) than the other fish species, ranging 7.45 mg/kg in Atlantic cod to 2.39 mg/kg in northern pike. A significant inter-fish association between As and I in freshwater and marine fish was observed, suggesting common sources and perhaps parallel absorption patterns. Only Atlantic cod and, to lesser extent, navaga constituted significant dietary sources of I.
Arctic territory today is the most perspective territory for oil and gas companies. It is not only resource based or in other words, Arctic boarding countries that should engage in arctic exploration as it requires completely new technological advancement, calling for intense attention to its field development. Following the USGC research developed in 2008 year, more than 80% of perspective Arctic territories are located in offshore. This fact inevitably conveys technical and legislative risks which are not experienced onshore or conventional offshore fields. Technical risks are associated with severe climate conditions, sensitive ecological situation and a lack of field development experience on these territories. Legislative risks depend on the arctic country in question. Legislative also include taxation system that directly affects the efficiency of field development. All this makes it actual to study technical and legislative risks associated with arctic offshore field development. Practically, the work consists of two parts: analysis of influence of technical risks and legislative risks (including taxation system) on field development in different Arctic Seas and two cases in Russian Barents Sea and Norwegian Barents Sea were studied. Analysis of technical and legislative risks in these countries are determined by similar conditions of state participation and strategic meaning of Arctic territories for both countries. In the frame of technical analysis risk classification system according to different Arctic Sea conditions was worked out. Probability for each technical risk was assessed in expert way and included in the field development project evaluation, which in turn was made using real option valuation and stochastic modeling approaches. In order to receive synergetic effect, valuation model of filed development with technical risks were then incorporated into economic model, which includes legislative restriction and taxation. These conditions differ according to territory in Russia which is the opposite in Norway, allowing us to create territories with similar climatic conditions and geological perspective, analyzing technical and legislative risks.
Iodine adsorption on the Ni(111) surface has been studied in ultra-high vacuum conditions with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. At the first stage of adsorption, iodine was found to form a simple commensurate v3×v3R30∘ structure at the coverage of 0.33 ML. According to DFT calculations, all iodine atoms in the v3×v3R30∘ structure occupy fcc hollow sites. Increase of the coverage in the range of (0.333 ML<θ <0.364 ML) results in the uniaxial compression of the iodine lattice and the formation of the high-order commensurate structure 11×3R30∘. The mechanism of compression involves the formation and the development of the striped super-heavy domain wall network. Further iodine dosing gives rise to nucleation and growth of flat 2D islands of surface nickel iodide. Atomic resolution STM images of iodide islands, in addition to atomic modulation, exhibit clear visible moiré-like superstructures with a period about 26Å. The origin of the moiré-patterns was explained by the incommensurability of lattices of the surface nickel iodide and underlying Ni(111).
This book presents the results of analysis of human capital in Murmansk and Archangelsk regions, republics of Komi and Karelia, and Nenets Autonomous Region. The authors considered migration processes and their trends; some of these were analyzed at municipal level. Having taken in account the importance of life expectancy as a complex indicator of sustainable development, the authors identified the periods of its growth and decline. Age-specific differences were also scrutinized. The relative contributions of major causes of mortality in life expectancy at birth were estimated. The authors described the dynamics of population of small indigenous peoples of the North (Vepsians, Nenets, Komi), the problems associated with their self-identification, census administration, migration, childbirth and life expectancy. The authors analyzed climate change as the new health risk factor, which affects safety of food and drinking water, accessibility of medical services and specific practices of deer-herding. A separate chapter of the book is devoted to current and future trends in working-age population until 2002. Each territory of Barents Sea Region displayed its own peculiar behavior of this indicator. The authors compared selected social, economic and demographic indicators in European part of Russian Arctic with those in foreign countries which belong to Barents Sea Region. This monograph was a product of collaborative efforts of the researchers from Economic Forecasting Institute and Institute of Demography of Higher School of Economics. B. A. Revich, Doctor of Medicine, and B. N. Porfiryev, Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, edited this book.
The importance of the Northern Sea Route is not in trying to make it a new Suez Canal, but in giving a boost to the development of service industries (mainly high-tech industries) and adjacent regions, as well as in opening one more window of opportunity for Russia’s integration into the global world.
The third volume of the series " The islands and archipelagos of the Russian Arctic " is dedicated to the history, cultural heritage and natural environment of the northern archipelago of the Russian Arctic - Franz Josef Land. It is based on the results of years (since 1990) studies the Marine Arctic Complex Expedition belonged by Polar Research Foundation and the Research Institute for Cultural and Natural Heritage. Materials on historical experiments recreating the conditions and circumstances of polar expeditions are presented. First diaries of members of foreign missions to the Franz Josef Land are published.
Effect of climate change on the populations of commercial fish is widely recognized. However, this recognition is currently insufficient and climate parameters are not incorporated into fishery forecasting models. Major fisheries of northern Russia targeting Alaska pollock, Pacific salmon in the North Pacific, and Atlantic cod in the Barents Sea are now in a good shape and showing record catches. This review discusses how climate change should be taken into account in the management of northern fish stocks in Russia. Given that climate conditions are currently favorable for these fisheries, it is difficult to assess the effectiveness of management system and predict how it will behave under less favorable climatic situation. Climate change might play a positive role in short-term perspective, but its role may be even negative in long-term perspective because of the possibility that the management system might lose its effectiveness in favorable conditions. To reduce risks for commercial fish stocks, it is necessary to incorporate an ecosystem-based approach in the management. One opportunity for that is provided by the program of ecological certification of Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) which became well established in Russia during the last decade. Without any support from the state, participants of the MSC program educate fishers, fishery managers, and governmental officers towards the use of ecosystem-based approach, specially accounting for the effect of climate change on northern Russian fisheries.
The Italian trading stations in Tana were important in the system of long-distance trade of the Italian maritime republics Venice and Genoa. The deeds of two Venetian notaries (Nicolo de Varsis and Benedetto de Smeritis) who worked there during the 1430s are an important source for tracing the transformation of the issues and directions of the Italian trade in the Black Sea region, the trade, which was recovering from crisis of the fourteenth century. Notwithstanding the Venetian-Genoese struggle and previous crisis events, this recovery made the economic conditions favorable.
Although some scholars see a regionalization of trade in fifteenth century, the source evidence challenges this interpretation. Westerners began to import Italian, Flemish, and English textiles to the Eastern markets, and the local goods (fish, caviar) were widely exported to Europe (even to the markets of Flanders). Finally, the slave trade was intensive. My main argument here is that though there were considerable transformations in the Italian trade, there was no real regionalization of trade, which retained its long-distance character.
Historically, extreme remoteness and cold have left the Bering Strait region sparsely populated and economically undeveloped. Costs are very high and infrastructure is minimal. Economies are undeveloped, and based primarily on mining and government. Population densities are very low. A high proportion of residents are Natives for whom subsistence hunting and fishing remain important sources of food. In the future, environmental, economic, political and technological factors are likely to bring increased economic activity to the region—although the timing and scale of future economic change are difficult to predict. Economic activities most likely to grow include marine transportation; onshore and offshore mineral and hydrocarbon development; land-based and cruise ship tourism; commercial fishing; and government services and infrastructure needed to support economic and population growth. The nature, timing and scale of growth will depend on a wide range of factors including change in ice conditions, the extent of future resource discoveries; and the extent to which governments make development of the region an economic and strategic priority. Significant economic activities in the Bering Strait region for which shared governance issues are currently or likely to become important include marine subsistence, marine transportation, offshore oil and gas development, commercial fishing, and cruise ship tourism.
The Arctic region is one of the most sensitive and vulnerable to climate change. The dramatic melting of Arctic ice has several negative consequences for the whole ecosystem as well as for a way of life of native people but it also creates new opportunities for the region. First, it opens up potential for exploitation of large deposits of natural resources such oil and gas. Second, it shrinks Arctic shipping routes which offer significant economic savings for many countries. These benefits has already attracted many countries, both Arctic and non-Arctic, thus resulting in potential conflict of interests. In our paper we present a mathematical approach to the problem of conflict resolution in the Arctic. First, we propose an approach how the level of interest in each part of the region should be evaluated with respect to main resources - oil, gas, fish and maritime routes. Second, we present several models of areas allocation to resolve the problem of conflict resolution. As a result, we applied several scenarios of areas allocation, evaluated their efficiency based on the total satisfaction level and identified conflict zones in the Arctic.
Data management and analysis is one of the fastest growing and most challenging areas of research and development in both academia and industry. Numerous types of applications and services have been studied and re-examined in this field resulting in this edited volume which includes chapters on effective approaches for dealing with the inherent complexity within data management and analysis. This edited volume contains practical case studies, and will appeal to students, researchers and professionals working in data management and analysis in the business, education, healthcare, and bioinformatics areas.
This prototype development explains the challenges encountered during the ISO/IEEE 11073 standard implementation process. The complexity of the standard and the consequent heavy requirements, which have not encouraged software engineers to adopt the standard. The developing complexity evaluation drives us to propose two possible implementation strategies that cover almost all possible use cases and eases handling the standard by non-expert users. The first one is focused on medical devices (MD) and proposes a low-memory and low-processor usage technique. It is based on message patterns that allow simple functions to generate ISO/IEEE 11073 messages and to process them easily. MD act as X73 agent. Second one is focused on more powerful device X73 manager, which do not have the MDs' memory and processor usage constraints. The protocol between Agent and Manager is point-to-point and we can distribute the functionality between devices.
Developed both implementation X73 Agent and Manager will cut developing time for applications based on ISO/EEE 11073.
In the internal medicine wide spectrum the gastroenterology is one of the chapters, less enlightened by the scientific evidence. It does not mean that the practice of the grasntroenterology may ot be improved by the systematic use of the approaches of the evidence based medicine