Особенности стратегии ЕАЭС по формированию сети ЗСТ
The number of free trade agreements (FTA) in international trade is rapidly growing and it makes them the main tool for countries’ trade liberalization. Created in the 2015, the Eurasian economic union (EAEU), that has the competence of the customs union, also started actively building a network of FTAs. To date, four such preferential agreements and one non-preferential trade agreement are in force, and at least three other agreements are expected to be signed in 2020-2025.
Some specific features can be attributed to the emerging network that will impact the economic development of the EAEU Member States and will allow its partners to adapt their foreign trade policies accordingly. The geography of the EAEU agreements demonstrates the intention to create a wide network of FTA covering primarily the Eastern hemisphere, with the potential to extend it to all major regions. The EAEU partners are generally small States and not the strongest economies, and the content of FTA agreements is not yet as broad and deep as, for example, concluded by the EU. It is noteworthy that the system almost does not contain WTO-extra provisions. However, the EAEU is only at the beginning of building an FTA network that may change the EAEU position in the international trade system.
The main goal of the article is to track the distinct features of this new EAEU trade policy and to identify specifics and prospects for the emerging FTA network, based on the already concluded agreements and the coming ones.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.