Названия еврейских месяцев в средневековой славяно-русской книжности: переводы с греческого и непосредственные заимствования из семитских источников
This article collects and analyzes all forms of the names of the Hebrew months in the medieval Slavonic-Russian literature. The first list of these names appeared in the multilingual set of names by Pseudo-John of Damascus, translated from Greek into Old Bulgarian and preserved in the Izbornik of 1073. Then other lists of Hebrew months, translated from Greek and Latin, came to the Slavonic-Russian literature; however, over the course of several centuries, there was no practical usage for such lists and Old Russian calendric and astronomical works did not need this encyclopedic knowledge. In the second half of the 15th century, there awoke on East Slavic territory an interest in the Jewish calendar tradition, and new calendric treatises appeared which directly appealed to the Jewish lunisolar calendar and contained proper Hebrew names of months borrowed without any Greek or Latin mediation, e.g., see the forms tišri (from Hebrew tišrî), marhašvan and merhešvan (from marḥešwān), and švat and ševat (from šəḇāṭ). In the same epoch and in the Russian lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, astronomical and philosophical works were translated from Hebrew into Church Slavonic and Ruthenian, and glosses and emendations according to the Masoretic Text arose in the Slavonic-Russian Pentateuch. Both in the Pentateuch and in the lists of the Hebrew month names, one can find some traces of a Turkic mediation, e.g., in the Slavonic-Russian name of the Hebrew ’iyyār – ičžar, with the Turkic transition of -j- into d͡ʒ typical for Kipchak dialects. The Turkic-speaking mediators for these Slavic-Hebrew contacts could be the East European Karaites who lived at this time in Kiev. The last – and least important – sources with the Hebrew month names were Azbukovniks (Alphabet books/lexicons) where these names were badly distorted. The appendix to the article publishes an unknown Old Russian treatise (according to the single copy from the 15th century) with the Arabic borrowed names of Levantine solar calendar; these are unique for the medieval Slavic tradition.