Factors Involved in miRNA Processing Change Its Expression Level during Imitation of Hypoxia in BeWo b30 Cells
One of the main complications of pregnancy and causes of maternal and perinatal mortality is preeclampsia. The pathophysiology of preeclampsia is associated with the development of placenta and fetal hypoxia and secretion of a number of effective molecules. The human choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo b30 is often used as a model of the placental barrier. It was shown that oxyquinoline derivatives can mimic hypoxia by suppressing HIF-prolyl hydroxylases and the accumulation of HIF-1α. This effect also leads to a change in the expression of microRNAs and their target genes. However, with hypoxia in cells, not only the level of individual miRNAs but also the ratio of miRNA isoforms (isomiRs) can change, presumably due to inaccuracies in the work of the Drosha and Dicer enzymes. In this work, we showed a change in the expression of the factors involved in the maturation of miRNAs when simulating hypoxia in BeWo b30 cells with an oxyquinoline derivative, which may be one of the causes for the change in the ratio of miRNA isoforms.
A large body of evidence indicates modified expression of protein-coding genes in response to different kinds of physical activity. Recent years have exposed another level of regulation of cellular processes mediated by non-coding RNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the largest families of non-coding RNAs. MiRNAs mediate post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The amount of data supporting the key role of miRNAs in the adaptation of the immune and other body systems to exercise steadily grows. MiRNAs change their expression profiles after exercise and seem to be involved in regulation of exercise-responsive genes in immune and other cell types. Here we discuss existing data and future directions in the field.
An in vitro placental barrier model based on human choriocarcinoma BeWo b30 cell line was considered as a method of preclinical study of the transport and toxicity of antitumor agents and other organic compounds. Low permeabilities were found for 5-fluorouracil as an example of hydrophilic compound and for doxorubicin as an example of a lipophilic compound with a high degree of binding to proteins and DNA and a high permeability was found for cyclophosphamide as an example of lipophilic compound with a low degree of binding to proteins. Using impedance spectrometry and cell viability assessment via reduction of resazurin to resorufin, a pronounced cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin and good tolerance of 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide by the cells were shown for drug concentrations equal to the maximum concentrations in the patients’ blood during the treatment of breast cancer.
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an extremely malignant form of breast cancer which can be easily misdiagnosed. Conclusive prognostic IBC molecular biomarkers which are also providing the perspectives for targeted therapy are lacking so far. The aim of this study was to reveal the IBC-specific miRNA expression profile and to evaluate its association with clinicopathological parameters.
miRNA expression profiles of 13 IBC and 17 non-IBC patients were characterized using comprehensive Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA 3.0 microarray platform. Bioinformatic analysis was used to reveal IBC-specific miRNAs, deregulated pathways and potential miRNA targets.
31 differentially expressed miRNAs characterize IBC and mRNAs regulated by them and their associated pathways can functionally be attributed to IBC progression. In addition, a minimal predictive set of 4 miRNAs characteristic for the IBC phenotype and associated with the TP53 mutational status in breast cancer patients was identified.
We have characterized the complete miRNome of inflammatory breast cancer and found differentially expressed miRNAs which reliably classify the patients to IBC and non-IBC groups. We found that the mRNAs and pathways likely regulated by these miRNAs are highly relevant to cancer progression. Furthermore a minimal IBC-related predictive set of 4 miRNAs associated with the TP53 mutational status and survival for breast cancer patients was identified.
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.
Papers about natural protection territories
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NNRs) of the α7 subtype have been shown to contribute to the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. The site of action and the underlying mechanism, however, are unclear. Here we applied a circuit modeling approach, supported by electrochemical in vivo recordings, to clarify this issue. Modeling revealed two potential mechanisms for the drop in accumbal dopamine efflux evoked by the selective α7 partial agonist TC-7020. TC-7020 could desensitize α7 NNRs located predominantly on dopamine neurons or glutamatergic afferents to them or, alternatively, activate α7 NNRs located on the glutamatergic afferents to GABAergic interneurons in the ventral tegmental area. Only the model based on desensitization, however, was able to explain the neutralizing effect of coapplied PNU-120596, a positive allosteric modulator. According to our results, the most likely sites of action are the preterminal α7 NNRs controlling glutamate release from cortical afferents to the nucleus accumbens. These findings offer a rationale for the further investigation of α7 NNR agonists as therapy for diseases associated with enhanced mesolimbic dopaminergic tone, such as schizophrenia and addiction