Water supply to the small cities in the northern region of the Russian Empire, 1890-1910s (Vologda, Staraya Russa and Cherepovets)
The article is devoted to the analysis of the process of the organization of centralized water supply systems in small Russian towns at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century. The causes and the process of pipeline building in three small cities, each of which became significant transport hubs by 1914 and had populations of less than 50,000 people, are described in the research. The research interest in these towns is led by understanding how the transport position of small cities promoted the improvement of water supplies in them. It was essential due to the growth of the urban populations and increasing cases of cholera epidemics in transport-hub cities.
The Inner Horde (Bukay Horde) was a part of Kazakh Little Horde which migrated to the Astrakhan province at the beginning of the 19th century. It caused disputes on its belonging during all its history: Orenburg authorities tried to control it as a part of Little Horde, Astrakhan ones – as a part of their province. Besides, the Inner Horde was created by a personal edict of emperor Paul I,therefore his successors were also interested in this khanate and issued their own acts for it. The author of the article gives the examples of collisions of different Russian state authorities with this small Kazakh khanate and analyzes the consequences of these collisions to describe problems of interactions of central and regional authorities on «national frontiers» of the Russian Empire in the first half of the 19th century.
The article is an attempt of takign stock of the burgnoining field of empire studies but devising the framework of general challanges of historical understanding of empire of methodological nature. The main thesis is that studies of empire are heavily influenced by the visions and epistemes of modern social sciences which, in their turn, are woven into the performativity of nation. Thus the true understnding of empire is suggeted to lay in a radical historivization of this political and social phenomenon. The approach of historiziation is further enunciated in the article with the help of the theory of estrangement and with reference to the history of the Russian Empire.
HISTELCON 2015 was the 4th in its series, after HISTELCON 2008 in Paris, HISTELCON 2010 in Madrid, and HISTELCON 2012 in Pavia). HISTELCON is a pioneering effort by IEEE Region 8 to bring together engineers with historians of engineering to discuss subjects of mutual interest.
The idea of North is a multivalent concept. It is geographical, but more than just Arctic; it is both an imagined space and a place of harsh challenges. These challenges resonate with each other across the northern world, shaping different areas of the North in many similar ways. Distinctive northern environments are created as humans adapt to climatic and geographic conditions while simultaneously adapting the landscapes to their own needs with technologies, trade, and social organization. This collection of essays argues that the unique environments of the North have been borne of the relationship between humans and nature. Approaching the topic through the lens of environmental history, the contributors examine a broad range of geographies, including those of Iceland and other islands in the Northern Atlantic, Sweden, Finland, Russia, the Pacific Northwest, and Canada, over a time span ranging from CE 800 to 2000. Northscapes is bound together by the intellectual project of investigating the North both as an imagined and mythologized space and as an environment shaped by human technology. The North offers a valuable analytical framework that surpasses nation-states and transgresses political and historical borders. This volume develops rich explorations of the entanglements of environmental and technological history in the northern regions of the globe.
The paper is dedicated to the representation of computer and information technology in Soviet society from 1960s to 1970s. A range of contemporary researches note that information society today is tightly linked to the ideas of democracy, freedom, commerce and decentralization. Nevertheless, in the Soviet project information technologies were called upon to serve official ideology and principles of planned economy. Reference to documentary and narrative sources reveals that information technologies can be loaded with varying cultural meanings and those views of the configurations and roles of electronic communications systems (hierarchy/decentralization, verticality/horizontality) are conditioned by their political context. The paper is mainly focused on the difference in interpretation of sociocultural consequences of automatization and development of information technology in capitalist and socialist countries.
The article presents the analogy of the pre-revolutionary and modern interpretations of the role of ministries in the discussion of the draft law. The thesis about the fact, that the ministries were mandatory participant of the stage of discussing the draft law in the course of implementation of law-making activities of the legislative and law-consultative bodies in the Russian Empire.