Общественно-консультативные советы как форма вовлечения экспертного знания в процесс политико-управленческих решений (на примере г. Санкт-Петербурга)
The creation of a multitude of public consultative bodies was one of the aftermaths of the administrative reform in Russia. Yet, the real impact of such advisory bodies on policy- making is weak. In this paper, we look at those organizations in Saint-Petersburg, Russia, to investigate the possible causes of such a situation. In order to achieve the ai, of the study, the legal base of more than 40 public consultative and advisory bodies under the city governor, city government and its committees has been analyzed. Based on the results of the analysis, we present the descriptive statistics of their composition and their estimated openness score. For deeper investigation, we have conducted interviews with the repre- sentatives of 7 advisory bodies and respective bodies of the city administration. As a result, a number of key problems with those advisory organizations’ activity were identified, including the lack of influence of members of councils on the current agenda, lack of feed- back from authorities, lack of openness of these public bodies. We suggest that possible causes of those problems could be communication issues and unbalanced composition of these organizations, including predominance of status persons among members.
This article discusses the process of reforming the executive authority in the Russian Federation in the period from 1990s to 2000s paying the attention to advocacy coalitions participation. Authors are wondering what could be done to make the reform of the state apparatus real, not imitation? Based on interviews and secondary data, the authors consistently consider administrative reform steps, focusing on the initiators’ of change objectives and the presence or absence of advocacy coalitions. As a result of this analysis, it is concluded that the reformers gradually came from non-public work on the reform to the realization that it is necessary to expand the composition of the actors involved in the process and to include representatives of civil society and the expert community. However, for various reasons, the full inclusion of NGOs, experts and the media in the process did not occur that had a negative effect on the results of reform.
The ongoing transformations are closely interrelated. The so-called "regulatory guillotine" is designed to eliminate conflicting, redundant and outdated requirements that are subject to scrutiny by state control and oversight.
The subtitle of the book concretizes the object of study. In the preface, one of the compilers of the collection, Anton Oleinik, a senior fellow at the Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, explains: "The term" postsocialist reforms "is used to describe attempts to implement changes in the most diverse spheres of Eastern European countries and countries formed on the territory of the former USSR." At the dawn of post-communist transformations, everything seemed extremely simple: to move towards democratization in the political sphere, to a full-fledged market in the economy and to an open society in the social sphere. However, as early as the second half of the 1990s, it became obvious that good intentions were being broken about unforeseen difficulties. It is to these difficulties, deviations from harmonious theoretical constructions, that the articles included in the book are devoted. The international team of authors, including American, English, Canadian, German, Bulgarian and Russian scientists, is the undoubted advantage of this book before others. The reading public in Russia is overfed with analytical products of domestic experts, while the outside view has a charm of novelty.
The chapter aims at tracing the influnce of the Enlightenment ideas on the policies, political culture and reforms in 18th century European countries.
Modern cities are transitioning from state to public administration. In the context of the creative and innovative urban environment’s energy raising, the problem of connections between the authorities, society and business is becoming more and more prominent. Such process cannot be of vertical nature and should be provided with stakeholders who are instrumental in the implementation of specific directions and initiatives of local communities. The article aims to justify the need for expert support in shaping strategic priorities of urban growth. Theoretical background of the study is the theories of creative city and smart city. These theories characterize the urban space from the point of view of potential post-industrial development. Based on the analysis of the foreign experience in city management some recommendations towards creating more comfortable of urban reality in Russia are provided. The authors also present several suggestions about the development of interaction between the experts and city authorities.
This article considers the strategic guidelines employed in the urban development in St. Petersburg. The theoretical framework of the study is located in the concept of the 'creative city' and the 'smart city'. This theory was applied to a content analysis of the Strategy‑2030. Despite the fact that the strategy made creating a comfortable environment and a high quality of life of citizens the main aim for the city’s development, its logic and content suggest that the real purpose is to develop the city along industrial traditions. An analysis of the Economic Council of the Governor of St. Petersburg leads to the conclusion that the existing system of strategic planning in St. Petersburg does not contain the institutional mechanisms needed to develop urban environment as a creative hub for its citizens. Culture is not seen as part of the knowledge economy but merely as a 'cultural heritage' to be preserved. Also lacking in the existing in strategic planning of development are instruments that could utilize the opinion of the cultural leaders and experts. An analysis of the target values and priorities of St. Petersburg’s development suggests there is a need to engage cultural experts in the strategic planning and governance. We consider nine groups of such experts: 1) the directors of cultural and historical heritage objects, forming the St. Petersburg brand and identity; 2) representatives of the Chambers of Attorneys; 3) IT and biotech companies, as well as large private medical clinics; 4) representatives of the sport and leisure industry; 5) organized communities of the city conservation; 6) the organizers of areas for work and leisure (loft projects and co working spaces); 7) the creators of famous St. Petersburg brands in fashion and beauty industries; 8) St. Petersburg restaurateurs; 9) the representatives of the entertainment industry.
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.
This special publication for the 2012 New Delhi Summit is a collection of articles by government officials from BRICS countries, representatives of international organizations, businessmen and leading researchers.
The list of Russian contributors includes Sergei Lavrov, Foreign Minister of Russia, Maxim Medvedkov, Director of the Trade Negotiations Department of the Russian Ministry of Economic Development, Vladimir Dmitriev, Vnesheconombank Chairman, Alexander Bedritsky, advisor to the Russian President, VadimLukov, Ambassador-at-large of the Russian Foreign Affairs Ministry, and representatives of the academic community.
The publication also features articles by the President of Kazakhstan NursultanNazarbayev and internationally respected economist Jim O’Neil, who coined the term “BRIC”. In his article Jim O’Neil speculates about the future of the BRICS countries and the institution as a whole.
The publication addresses important issues of the global agenda, the priorities of BRICS and the Indian Presidency, the policies and competitive advantages of the participants, as well as BRICS institutionalization, enhancing efficiency and accountability of the forum.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.