Неуклюжая сага: повторы и неоднородная композиция в «сагах об исландцах»
The transition from the Norwegian narrative to the Icelandic one in Bjarnar saga Hítdælakappa creates such a contrast that for a long time this saga has been seen as particularly odd or clumsily made. This article argues that the contrast is due to the saga’s bipartite structure where one part serves as an introduction and another becomes the main narrative. The transition from one part to the other is marked by the change in the narrator’s guidance. This change is illustrated by the analysis of the representation of subjectivity in the saga.
The paper proposes a substantial classification of collocates (pairs of words that tend to cooccur) along with heuristics that can help to attibute a word pair to a proper type automatically.
The best studied type is frequent phrases, which includes idioms, lexicographic collocations, and syntactic selection. Pairs of this type are known to occur at a short distance and can be singled out by choosing a narrow window for collecting cooccurrence data.
The next most salient type is topically related pairs. These can be identified by considering word frequencies in individual documents, as in the wellknown distributional topic models.
The third type is pairs that occur in repeated text fragments such as popular quotes of standard legal formulae. The characteristic feature of these is that the fragment contains several aligned words that are repeated in the same sequence. Such pairs are normally filtered out for most practical purposes, but filtering is usually applied only to exact repeats; we propose a method of capturing inexact repetition.
Hypothetically one could also expect to find a forth type, collocate pairs linked by an intrinsic semantic relation or a long-distance syntactic relation; such a link would guarantee co-occurrence at a certain relatively restricted range of distances, a range narrower than in case of a purely topical connection, but not so narrow as in repeats. However we do not find many cases of this sort in the preliminary empirical study.
The article presents an analysis of Leonid Aronzon’s poem «Message to the Clinic» (1963). The text is analyzed for the functioning of multi-level repetitions; cultural context – in terms of the poet’s religious identity and the mindset of uncensored poetry of the 1960s; the subtext – regarding the biography of Aronzon, as well as the trials of Joseph Brodsky and Vladimir Shveigolts. The total repetitions in the «Message to the Clinic» organize the poem composition and, contrary to expectations, do not simplify, but consolidate its semantic structure. In the poem it is necessary to single out several significant levels at which one can observe realization of the repetition principle as augmentation of meaning. Firstly, this is the level of vocabulary at which the repeated word expands its meaning to «hieroglyphic» one. Secondly, this is the level of syntax, where the repetition of figures and the variation of equivalent constructions contribute to the formation of identical rhythmic-intonation blocks, as in suggestive speech genres such as spells or mantras. These levels, in turn, are closely connected with the development of the text composition: the «unique», not repetitive, becomes significant. Thematic variation also affects the development of fundamental images, creating spatial-temporal polyphony. In addition, the totality of the repetition principle makes it possible to establish clear semantic links on large intervals of a specific poetic text and in general in the space of Aronzon's poetry. The form «Message to the Clinic», its religious and mythological themes, as well as the appellative orientation can be interpreted through the prism of 1) New Age ideology, 2) so-called «poor religion», 3) specifics of the work of the Soviet psychiatry with the literary underground of the 1960s.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.