Масштабы теневой экономики в сфере городских и пригородных пассажирских перевозок в регионах России
The author considers a non-cash fare payment system as an effective tool to reduce the shadow income of transport organizations. The object is shadow economy in regions of Russia. The subject is the public passenger transport sphere. The author studies buses on municipal regular transport routes (city and suburbs). The category of buses also includes buses of small capacity, i.e. «Minibuses». The scientific novelty of the work is to obtain quantitative and qualitative estimates of the extent and consequences of the shadow sector of the provision in the public passenger transport sphere in regions of Russia. The work takes into account a non-cash fare system using debit, credit, transport and social (preferential) cards. It was revealed that in 2018, a non-cash system was installed in 56 regions and in 29 regions was not installed. Based on the panel data analysis, considering endogeneity, AR (1), heteroskedasticity, the work revealed, where the statistical significance at p-value <= 10%, a positive effect of a non-cash fare system on the number of passengers carried on municipal buses and commercial buses. The average annual increase in the number of passengers, as a result of the installation of a non-cash system, amounted to 5840 thousand people. The data obtained showed that from 2014 to 2017, the amount of the shadow revenue of transport organizations was 7.2 billion rubles and the amount of unpaid taxes to the budget ranged from 0.4 to 2.6 billion rubles. The author concludes that the installation of a non-cash fare system leads to a decrease in the shadow economy in the public passenger transport services.