Занятость российских женщин после рождения детей: стимулы и барьеры
The article examines the economic activity of women after childbirth in Russia and the incentives and barriers that exist for them in returning to employment. The birth of a child in Russia involves a number of risks to the employment of the mother. First of all, it’s a risk to stay without work and there is a chance that less than favourable working conditions will be found after returning from maternity leave and child care compared to workers without children. The longer the break in employment, the higher the likelihood of employment problems. One can argue that this is solely due to the loss of skills during the maternity leave, but this obviously contributes. These facts are particularly important because families with children in Russia are consistently among the groups at the highest risk of falling into poverty. Why do some return to work (sometimes even before the end of the maternity leave), while others remain outside of the labour market? What keeps women off the labour market, and what could help them to find employment or to return to the same place? To answer these questions, we carried out qualitative analysis based on data from group interviews and a comparison of the views of unemployed and employed women with children under the age of three. We also interviewed employees high, medium and low-skilled workers – that reflect the socio-economic heterogeneity of the population we studied. The research is also based on data from focus groups conducted in four types of settlements in Russia in 2013: the capital city, a large city, a small city, and a village.