Взаимосвязь ресурсов и компетенций вузов с результатами их экспортной деятельности
The article presents the results of a study aimed at identifying universities’ resources and competencies interrelated with their export activities, and at analyzing these interrelations. To achieve this purpose, the indicators of university activities over a four-year period and the dynamics of their changes are analysed. With the help of panel data analysis methods, the relationships between quantitative indicators characterizing the resources, universities’ competencies, and the results of their export activities are estimated. The annual performance indicators of 589 Russian universities are analyzed through four academic years – from the 2013/14 up to the 2016/17. Over the indicated period, 74 % of the universities included in the sample increased the number of foreign students, this growth in most cases being unstable if taken year by year. The universities with positive changes in the number of foreign students show the following resources and competencies: the development of incoming students’ international academic mobility; international teaching staff and a high level of their qualifications; partnership with enterprises for organizing student practice; international cooperation in research. The results of the study may be of interest for universities planning to develop the export of educational services and making decisions on the implementation of measures aimed at attracting foreign students. The paper analyzes the performance of universities having the necessary data for four years in open access. For further research, the list of analyzed indicators can be expanded, with the values of indicators considered for a longer period of time.
The article presents results of the research aimed at analyzing the institutional level factors influence over the results of export activities of Russian universities. To accomplish the aim of the research, an econometric analysis of quantitative data on the performance indicators of Russian universities was conducted. The research pool includes 153 universities from all regions of the Russian Federation.
Based on the analysis of academic publications on education export efficacy factors, the authors formed a list of institutional level factors supposedly positively influencing the results of university export activities. The data were taken from the reports of the university self-monitoring; from the Monitoring of higher education institution activities efficacy; and from the statistical collection «Export of Russian Educational Services».
During the research, the author suggested and tested hypotheses on seven institutional factors positively influencing university export activities efficacy. Linear regression data analysis using the least square method was conducted to test these hypotheses.
The research results demonstrated the fact that the growth of foreign students numbers at the university is related to implementation of international double diploma programs and teaching programs diversification. Income from export activities is influenced by network partnership with foreign universities, implementation of short-term incoming academic mobility programs and commercialization level of foreign students training. The popularity of a University brand in the Internet has a positive influence over both numbers of foreign students and income from their training. The hypothesis on positive influence of university activities in the field of transnational education program implementation on export activities results was not proven. This form of export is not sufficiently developed in Russian universities.
The regression coefficient meanings for some institutional factors are significant, but not high. This means that in the mid-term perspective universities cannot achieve significant increase of export efficacy by means of only improved institutional performance indicators. Export activities of Russian universities are greatly influenced by external environment factors. Therefore, a positive result can be achieved only by complex approach combining state level measures for attracting foreign students to Russia and by actions of universities in this area.
The results obtained are of interest for university executives, as the identified statistically significant dependencies demonstrate perspective university development directions that would facilitate export efficacy.
The article observes a limited number of factors. This is stipulated by the fact that some institutional level factors can hardly be quantitatively evaluated and by the limited statistical data on international educational activities of Russian universities. Further research in this field will allow for broadening the number of analyzed institutional factors and studying the mechanism of dependence between factors and university export results in more detail.
Au moment où ils accèdent à l’indépendance, de nombreux pays d’Afrique subsaharienne et du Maghreb établissent des relations diplomatiques avec Moscou. Certains, comme l’Éthiopie, entretenaient depuis longtemps déjà des liens étroits avec la Russie. Cependant, c’est surtout avec le mouvement de décolonisation que les pays communistes s’ouvrent à l’accueil massif et systématique d’étudiants maghrébins et subsahariens.
Les trajectoires de formation de ces diplômés africains partis en URSS ou dans un autre pays de l’ancien bloc de l’Est ont été peu étudiées. En rendre compte, c’est notamment s’intéresser aux expériences diverses et contrastées d’étudiants formés non pas dans l’ancien pays colonisateur, comme cela était souvent le cas, mais dans un pays tiers qui suscitait chez eux à la fois admiration et méfiance, où ils ont connu pour les uns de fortes désillusions, pour d’autres « les meilleurs moments de leur vie ». C’est aussi étudier les cadres sociaux et politiques de leurs expériences, et prêter attention aux nombreux étudiants, partagés entre deux ou plusieurs mondes, et souvent confrontés aux soubresauts de l’histoire. À l’issue des études, les diplômés étaient immédiatement renvoyés dans leur pays. Mais les devenirs des étudiants et stagiaires africains formés dans les pays de l’ancien bloc socialiste n’ont pas eu la linéarité prévue par cette description formelle. Les parcours professionnels et sociaux, parfois politiques, sont autant le fruit d’arbitrages individuels que de mutations politiques : l’effondrement de l’URSS, mais aussi les changements politiques et économiques dans les pays d’origine. La rédaction de l’ouvrage a été dirigée dans le cadre du programme ÉLITAF par Monique de Saint Martin, Grazia Scarfò Ghellab et Kamal Mellakh. Avec des contributions de Tassé Abye, Charles Zacharie Bowao, Ekaterina Demintseva, Svetlana Dimitrova, Nikolay Dobronravin, Élieth P. Eyebiyi, Mihaï D. Gheorghiu, Constantin Katsakioris, Abel Kouvouama, Natalia Krylova, Lucette Labache, Michèle Leclerc-Olive, Irina Macovei, Sergey Mazov, Manétou Ndiaye, Adrian Netedu, Boubacar Niane, Carmen Olaru, Régine Tchicaya-Oboa, Anna Siim-Moskovitina, Tatiana Smirnova, Patrice Yengo et une préface de Jean-Pierre Dozon.
Chapter analyzes the activities of fraternities (zemliatshesv) - student associations in the universities of the USSR. On the example of African associations, the authors analyze their role in the adaptation of foreign students.
This paper discusses factors which account for origins and directions of international student flows. It aims at mapping student mobility systematically with social network analysis tools. By looking at UNESCO and Russian Bureau of Statistics data it explores the effects of sending country size, indicators of economic development (GDP per capita) and institutional closeness. As a result, the author argues that belonging of the two countries to one political structure in the past (e. g. colonial empire) and institutional export from one of these countries (colonial power) to another (dependent territory) is highly significant for the emergence of a return student flow to former center of political structure.
The rapid transition to distance learning causes a number of difficulties in conducting classes, both on the part of teachers and on the part of students. The article provides an overview of specialized programs and proven methods that allow you to adapt the learning process to the peculiarities of the perception of natural and mathematical disciplines by foreign students in humanitarian areas of training.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.