ALEKSANDER OSTROVSKII AND THE CENSOR: BETWEEN OPPRESSION AND SYMBIOSIS
Aleksandr Ostrovskii, the best known and very prolific Russian playwright of the nineteenth century, interacted constantly with the officials responsible for dramatic censorship, considered by most of Ostrovskii’s contemporaries the most brutal branch of the censorship apparatus. The censor and, independently, Nicholas I personally, did not allow Ostrovskii to stage his first major play. A similar fate awaited some of his later plays. By the mid-1850’s, Ostrovskii had accumulated significant symbolic capital and officials from the Censorship Department started avoiding conflicts with him. Instead, they tried to draw him to their side by interpreting his works in a light that would render them suitable to the requirements for dramatic works. Ostrovskii, from the beginning of his career, tried not so much to avoid conflicts with the censorship and cuts to his plays as to provide the censor with a way to interpret his works that would not require them to be banned. The present article analyzes both the history of such attempts by Ostrovskii and his censors to find common ground, and the reasons why these attempts turned out to be not entirely effective. Using material from the censorship archives, I attempt to demonstrate that such attempts changed the playwright’s status.
This paper is a quantitative research on the evolution of dramatic texts since the 1740s to the first quarter of the 20th century. Using our TEI-encoded corpus of plays, we analyze the changes in length and linguistic composition of stage directions. These changes, in our view, reflect the general ‘epification’ of drama – a process that later culminates with the emergence of Brecht’s ‘epic theatre’.
For many years the playwright Nikolai Erdman and his remarkable impact on Russian theater and drama have been almost forgotten. In the 1990s, however, his drama began attracting critics' attention. Now, as a result, Erdman is viewed as one of the prominent Russian playwrights of the first half of the twentieth century. Although recently Erdman became an important object of research, the innovations of his drama have never been analyzed as specific phenomena. This article is focused on poetics of two main Erdman's plays: “The Warrant” and “The Suicide.” By analyzing the time and space, as well as the plot, dialogue, and characters, the main innovatory elements of these plays are analyzed. According to this analysis, Erdman's dialogue appears to be the playwright's most significant discovery which impacted not only his own drama but the whole Russian theater of the twentieth century as well.
The book offers history of dramatic writing of the Spanish Republican exile of 1939 in Europe. This data is completed by information on its staging permormed in European theaters, Russian theaters among them.
The article analyses how L.Tieck understood the phenomena of the traditional narratives. The article discusses the views Tieck had upon the chapbook, and its adaptations in his works, particularly the drama based upon popular material. Three of his dramatic works of that type, «Life and death of the St. Genivieve» (1800), «Emperor Octavian» (1808) and «Fortunatus» (1815), especially the first one, initiated new genres of German Romantic drama called Universaldrama (drama of the universe), which are typologically close to mystery play. Tieck's literary program combined both the rejection of contemporary mass literature and the productive replacement of it with examples of new Romantic art. The contradiction between reality and fiction, which is accentuated in Tieck's comedies, weakens in his Universaldramen. The main theme of his plays is the interpretation of religion as a way to comprehend the world. The poet creates a kind of genre complex, where the drama of historical process is ironically removed. This is the basic principle of his two first big plays – “Life and death of the St. Genivieve” and “Emperor Octavian”. His last play, “Fortunatus” is, however, rather a generalizing "ironic construct" which combines elements of several traditional genres and, at the same time, is a parody of the genre he created.
The chapter offers information about dramatic writing of Spanish writer Cesar Arconada in his exile in the Soviet Union, and its staging in the USSR. The second half of the chapter tells about the Spanish theater director Ángel Gutiérrez, from the group of the Spanish children evacuated during Spanish civil war to the USSR, who studied at GITIS. The third part of the chapter offers history of staging of drama by Alejandro Casona in the Soviet Union.
The article considers the history of the legal newspaper Pravo and its censorship history. The newspaper was an influential Russian liberal periodical of the early 20th century. It was published without pre-censorship but underwent pressure from the Ministry of Internal Affairs, received administrative warnings for its “harmful direction” and was on the verge of administrative closure. Pravo published articles about the state of Russian legislation, government administration and the court system, giving special attention to press legislation. It criticized the censorship system in Russia for administrative arbitrariness and advocated freedom of the press based on the rule of law. The history of censorship against the newspaper itself is indicative of the arbitrary character of Russian law on freedom of the press.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.