Does Incomplete Information Reduce Manipulability?
We consider the problem of individual manipulation under incomplete information, when voters do not know a full preference profile. Instead, voters know the result of an opinion poll (the outcome of a poll information function π, e.g. a list of scores or a set of winners). In this case, a voter has an incentive to misrepresent her preferences (π-manipulate) if she knows that she will not become worse off and there is a chance of becoming better off. We consider six voting rules and eight types of poll information functions differing in their informativeness. To compare manipulability, first we calculate the probability that there is a voter which has an incentive to π-manipulate and show that this measure is not illustrative in the case of incomplete information. Then, we suggest considering two other measures: the probability of a successful manipulation and an aggregate stimulus of voters to manipulate, which demonstrate more intuitive behavior. We provide results of computational experiments as well as analytical proofs of some effects observed.
In this article detection of the manipulative potential of the concepts ‘tolerance’ and ‘political correctness’ are described on the example of federal and regional publications of the newspaper ‘Коммерсантъ’. Manipulative character of these social regulators is shown in the analysis of language means and ways of estimated interpretation by authors of newspaper articles with the paradoxical manifestation of tolerance and political correctness.
Procedures aggregating individual preferences into a collective choice differ in their vulnerability to manipulations. To measure it, one may consider the share of preference profiles where manipulation is possible in the total number of profiles, which is called Nitzan-Kelly's index of manipulability. The problem of manipulability can be considered in different probability models. There are three models based on anonymity and neutrality: impartial culture model (IC), impartial anonymous culture model (IAC), and impartial anonymous and neutral culture model (IANC). In contrast to the first two models, the IANC model, which is based on anonymity and neutrality axioms, has not been widely studied. In addition, there were no attempts to derive the difference of probabilities (such as Nitzan-Kelly's index) in IC and IANC analytically. We solve this problem and show in which cases the upper bound of this difference is high enough, and in which cases it is almost zero. These results enable us to simplify the computation of indices.
The article is devoted to the development of the principles of communicative strategies typology construction which is considered to be a method of scientific research of individuals' communicative interaction.
Conference Proceedings report findings presented at the 20th Annual Conference of the National Association of Teachers of English in Russia held in Voronezh in April, 2014. The proceedings might be useful for English language teachersworking at different levels - from University to kindergarten. linguists, interpreters and translators, as well as students and postgraduates majoring in EFL, linguistics and cultural studies.
The author believes that today propaganda is a two way mechanism of communication. In addition to imposing and informational pressure, it involves the formation of public opinion on the basis of awareness of the benefits of the proposed policy for the society. Propaganda is not only a tool of ideology, but also an independent element in the overall structure of the ideological system, especially in conditions of Soviet "idiocracy". Therefore all attempts of Western political science and sociology to separate propaganda and education do not work on the example of Soviet reality.
The article analyzes the influence of the development of Internet technologies on the ways of communication and social interaction in society. The growth of information flows, the speed of information exchange, stimulate people to search for new forms of self-organization, a significant place among which is occupied by virtual communities in social networks. This process intensifies various effects for all users of network groups. Users in search of a circle of "their own" and personal identification resort to a variety of ways of self-categorization, falling under the influence of different modes of influence and manipulation (positive and negative). To maintain a balance of interests, it is necessary to increase media literacy, teaching critical reading and analysis.
Eine politische Ordnung gilt als legitim, wenn die Burger sie anerkennen und bereit sind, den Entscheidungen der Herrschenden Folge zu leisten. Diese Bereitschaft wird gewohnlich als Ergebnus einer bewussten und freien Entscheidung verstanden. Dies ist keineswegs immer so. Sie kahn auch auf Gewakt, Zwang oder Terror beruhen. Autoritare Ordungen bedienen sich heute anderer Methoden. Machpraktiken wie Beeinflussung, Imitation und Manipulation sowie die Verfugungsgewalt der Herrschenden uber die zentralen Apparate zur Reproduktion inrer Hegemonoe wie das Bildungssystem, die Medien oder die Armee spielen eine zentrale Rolle, um Legititat zu erzielen.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.