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Article

Гендерные и региональные различия в ожидаемой продолжительности жизни в России

Вопросы статистики. 2020. Т. 27. № 1. С. 106-120.

The relevance of the chosen topic is closely related to the course of the demographic policy of the state until 2024 to increase life expectancy and reduce the poverty level of the population. World experience shows that climatic conditions, living conditions, the quality of food and drinking water, alcohol consumption are important components of public health and life expectancy in general. Despite the positive dynamics of life expectancy over the past decade, Russia still has a huge regional differentiation (16,6 years for women, 18,2 years for men in 2016) and an average gender gap in Russia - 10 ,6 years. The paper examines the problems of regional differentiation of life expectancy at birth with consideration of gender specifics in the context of the lifestyle and living conditions of the population.

According to Rosstat 2016, a typology of the regions on the life expectancy of men and women by the K-means method into 3 clusters was carried out, similar problems of the regions were identified in terms of alcohol consumption, quality of food and drinking water, living conditions. The regions of the 1st cluster (Yevreyskayaavtonomnaya oblast, RespublikaTyva, Chukotskiyavtonomnyyokrug) require special attention. There are the lowest rates of life expectancy for men and women, poor food quality, high alcohol consumption, high mortality rates from external causes, poor housing conditions and poor quality of drinking water.

On the basis of the obtained results, possible reserves for reducing the gender and regional differentiation of life expectancy were analyzed. The analysis performed and the methodology used will contribute to the development of a system for monitoring the implementation of the May presidential decrees (2018) in order to increase life expectancy and improve the quality of life of the population.