Гендерные и региональные различия в ожидаемой продолжительности жизни в России
The relevance of the chosen topic is closely related to the course of the demographic policy of the state until 2024 to increase life expectancy and reduce the poverty level of the population. World experience shows that climatic conditions, living conditions, the quality of food and drinking water, alcohol consumption are important components of public health and life expectancy in general. Despite the positive dynamics of life expectancy over the past decade, Russia still has a huge regional differentiation (16,6 years for women, 18,2 years for men in 2016) and an average gender gap in Russia - 10 ,6 years. The paper examines the problems of regional differentiation of life expectancy at birth with consideration of gender specifics in the context of the lifestyle and living conditions of the population.
According to Rosstat 2016, a typology of the regions on the life expectancy of men and women by the K-means method into 3 clusters was carried out, similar problems of the regions were identified in terms of alcohol consumption, quality of food and drinking water, living conditions. The regions of the 1st cluster (Yevreyskayaavtonomnaya oblast, RespublikaTyva, Chukotskiyavtonomnyyokrug) require special attention. There are the lowest rates of life expectancy for men and women, poor food quality, high alcohol consumption, high mortality rates from external causes, poor housing conditions and poor quality of drinking water.
On the basis of the obtained results, possible reserves for reducing the gender and regional differentiation of life expectancy were analyzed. The analysis performed and the methodology used will contribute to the development of a system for monitoring the implementation of the May presidential decrees (2018) in order to increase life expectancy and improve the quality of life of the population.
In this study, the authors pinpoint the similarities and differences between students at a Russian university and a Swedish university regarding the students’ value systems. What similarities and what differences are there between male Swedish students and male Russian students, and what similarities and what differences are there between the female students in the two countries? The authors’ interest was directed towards the gender differences between the two countries. A method employing three phases was developed for analyses of the value systems in the two countries. Students, who, as a category, often challenge existing value systems, were chosen as informants. Student samples from each country, varying in number from 63 to 100 informants, provided data in the three sub-studies. The results indicated that similar national concepts, when translated into English, exposed significant differences in their connotations, a phenomenon which is discussed in relation to implications for intercultural communication. In particular, the concepts of democracy and gender equality are highlighted. Differences and similarities related to gender and nationality constitute the bulk of the discussion. A major finding was that concepts describing close interpersonal relations, such as friendship and love, were cross-nationally rated higher than values more distant from the individual’s private world, such as democracy and equal rights.
We present a complex analysis of business models for large, medium and small Russian commercial banks from 2006 to 2009. The Russian banks are grouped based on homogeneity criteria of their financial and operational outcomes. The banks’ structure of assets and liabilities, profitability and liquidity ratio are taken into account. The results show how the banks are adjusted their business models before and after the financial turmoil taken place in 2008. In addition, the prevailing banking business models observed for the leading banks in Russia are defined. The banks often changing their business models are found and analyzed.
This is the second book devoted to the 3rd Stochastic Modeling Techniques and Data Analysis. (SMTDA) International Conference held in Lisbon, Portugal, June 11-14, 2014. Revised and expanded forms of papers from the conference presentations are included. SMTDA main objective is to publish papers, both theoretical or practical, presenting new results having potential for solving real-life problems. Another important objective is to present new methods for solving these problems by analyzing the relevant data. Also, the use of recent advances in different fields is promoted such as for example, new optimization and statistical methods, data warehouse, data mining and knowledge systems, computing-aided decision supports and neural computing. The first Chapter includes papers on Stochastic Modeling, First Passage Time and Copulas, whereas contributions on Statistics, Distributions, Bayesian Modeling are included in the second Chapter. Papers on Model building and Modeling of particular cases are included in the third Chapter, and Data Analysis methods, techniques and applications are presented in the fourth Chapter. Statistics in Health Sciences and Sports are presented in the fifth Chapter, along with Statistical Modelling and Applications papers included in the sixth Chapter. Chapter seven includes papers on Experimental Design and Related Topics, whereas Information Theory and Risk Analysis topics are analyzed in Chapter eight. Time Series, Signals, Networks papers along with works on Statistical Quality Control are included in Chapters nine and ten.
In the article on the basis of the psycholinguistic experimental data obtained in 2009-2010 from Russian and Swedish students (the project on Swedish Institute grant) we consider internal features of several complex values (“Harmony”, “Freedom”, “Democracy”, “Tolerance” and “Patriotism”) and analyze their external systemic organization, taking into account both specificity of the two cultures and gender specifics. We argue that value concepts are hierarchically organized, forming different generalization levels from the simple to the more complex ones with intricate overlapping among different complex values within the system.
Data Correcting Algorithms in Combinatorial Optimization focuses on algorithmic applications of the well known polynomially solvable special cases of computationally intractable problems. The purpose of this text is to design practically efficient algorithms for solving wide classes of combinatorial optimization problems. Researches, students and engineers will benefit from new bounds and branching rules in development efficient branch-and-bound type computational algorithms. This book examines applications for solving the Traveling Salesman Problem and its variations, Maximum Weight Independent Set Problem, Different Classes of Allocation and Cluster Analysis as well as some classes of Scheduling Problems. Data Correcting Algorithms in Combinatorial Optimization introduces the data correcting approach to algorithms which provide an answer to the following questions: how to construct a bound to the original intractable problem and find which element of the corrected instance one should branch such that the total size of search tree will be minimized. The PC time needed for solving intractable problems will be adjusted with the requirements for solving real world problems.
This paper presents a pattern behavioral analysis of 100 largest Russian commercial banks by total assets during an eight- year period: from the first quarter of 1999 to the second quarter of 2007. Bank performance indicators are analyzed. Structural similarities in the development of the banks are examined. A cluster analysis is applied to determine banks with a similar structure of operations. This analysis allows to estimate how the structure of the Russian banking system has been changing over time. In particular, it allows to identify prevailing patterns in the behavior of Russian commercial banks and to analyze the stability of their position in a particular pattern.
How seriously does the degree of trust in basic social and political institutions for people from different countries depend on their individual characteristics? To answer this question, three types of models have been estimated using the data of the fifth wave of the World Value Survey: the first one based on the assumption about a generalized relationship for all countries, the second one taking into account heterogeneity of countries (using introduction of the country-level variables), the third type applying a preliminary subdivision of countries into five clusters. The obtained results have been used for suggestion of possible actions to increase public confidence in the basic institutions.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.