К вопросу об организации животноводства в Шумере: данные документов из Гирсу конца III тыс. до н.э.
The present study deals with animal husbandry in Sumer at the end of the third millennium B.C. It is based on documents related to the institutions specializing in fattening аnimals for cultic purposes in the province of Girsu at the time of the Third dynasty of Ur. A group of Neo-Sumerian documents referring to the daily supply of fodder for the animals at the sheeppen é-udu gibil is discussed in details, and an attempt is made to determine their date. On the basis of the evidence of another kind of documents – inspection lists of workers – it is suggested that several fattening sheep-pens (é-udu) in Girsu were in fact departments of one single institution called é-kurušda ĝír-suki.
The author summarizes all the data on the institute of pol’udie in Old Rus’ from the late 9th to the early 16th century and concludes that this institution had transformed. At first, in “tribal” society pol’udie was gifts and food which population gave voluntarily to their leaders/rulers when they went round over a territory of a given “tribe”. Then, under the Rus’ rule, the gifts and food were combined with an obligatory tribute which was collected during the circle-trips, and these trips were called pol’udie (10-11th centuries). Beginning at the early 12th century the pol’udie evolved into one tax collected in naturalia or money in favor of a prince or his agents or his beneficiaries.
This book examines how Russia, the world’s most complicated country, is governed. As it resumes its place at the centre of global affairs, the book explores Russia’s overarching strategies, and how it organizes itself (or not) in policy areas ranging from foreign policy and national security to health care, education, immigration, science, sport, agriculture, the environment and criminal justice. The book also discusses the structures and institutions on which Russia relies in order to deliver its goals in these areas of national life, as well as what’s to be done, in policy terms, to improve the country’s performance in its first post-Soviet century.
The author presents a history of the institute of pol’udie in Old Rus’ from the 10th to the mid 16th century and concludes that this institution had transformed depending on changing economic and financial conditions. Originally, pol’udie was gifts and food which population gave voluntarily to their leaders/rulers when they went round over a territory of a given “tribe”. Beginning at the early 12th century the pol’udie evolved into one tax collected in naturalia or money in favor of a prince or his agents or his beneficiaries. The poliud’e disappeared in the northeastern princedoms of Rus’ since they had been conquered by the Mongols and obliged to pay them a tribute in the mid-13th century.
The article concerns the problem of the Russian absolutist monarchy of the XVIII - the beginning of XX-th centuries in a comparative perspective. The social function of absolutism consisted in national integration, cultural unification and social transformation of traditional society by using of legal and coercive measures. The crucial problem is the changing role of the bureaucracy which could be the main protagonist of reforms or, just the opposite – its main opponent. From this point of view the author summarizes positive and negative aspects of absolutist reforms making outlook on the comparative experience of other absolutist empires of Europe and Asia.
European football in general and Spanish football in particular is experiencing huge financial difficulties. This paper analyzes Spanish clubs during the period from 2007 until 2011, using Altman’s models to classify clubs according to their Z-score values. Through these models, the determinants of the clubs’ poor financial situation are identified. The evidence suggests that Spanish football is in very poor financial condition. To improve its situation what is required is a substantial injection of capital funding through issuing shares or asking for substantial contributions from members, increasing revenues, reducing wages and salaries, and working to reduce current liabilities.
The article seeks to depart the traditional interpretation of administrative discretion as choice (freedom of choice) between one of the given options for the law enforcement (individual) act. Administrative discretion is seen as a complex legal phenomenon, used not only in law enforcement, but also in rule-making. Its definition is provided as a certain "reflection" of the initial state of regulated managment relations, an understanding of the current situation (requiring managerial resolution), and consideraton of the current sate of affairs at the time of the decision-making and, furthermore, as the assumptions and anticiation of he impact the decision made on the development of regulations related by the managements act.