Особенности идентичностей и мировоззрения основных страт современного российского общества
The article analyzes the specifics of identities and attitudes of the three main strata of Russian society, identified on the basis of M. Weber's ideas of positive and negative privileges. Based on the materials of two all-Russian surveys carried out by FCTAS RAS in 2015 and 2018, it is demonstrated that these strata differ among themselves not only in their level of well-being, professional composition and educational level, but also in their identities, social well-being, attitudes, norms and values systems and assessments of current situation in Russia. While the lower and middle strata are relatively close to each other, the upper stratum (about 20% of Russians) stands out with pronounced specifics of identities, planning horizon, prevalence of nonconformist attitudes and type of locus control. The life goals of the top stratum representatives more often have a character of achievement, and their assessments of the situation in Russia, unlike those of the rest of Russians, are quite optimistic. Requests of representatives of this stratum to the state also have their own specifics, in particular there is a pronounced request for a country's breakthrough in science and high technologies. At the same time, solidarity attitudes are less common in the upper stratum, while stigmatization of the poor is more common. It is noted that the features of the attitudes and norms and values systems of the upper stratum are also reflected in the behavioral strategies of its representatives. It is concluded that the defined strata correspond to the main criteria of the classes in their neo-Weberian interpretation, and within the framework of this social structure model the upper stratum can be considered the middle class, which has pronounced specificity not only of its objective, but also subjective characteristics.