Intercultural Friendships, Social Identities and Psychological Well-Being of Ethnic Minorities in Different Contexts
The study focuses on the relationship between intercultural friendships, social identities, and well-being of ethnic Russians in three different contexts of the North and South Caucasus. We revealed the positive relations of intercultural friendships with the host society identity in all contexts and with the well-being of Russians in the culturally diverse contexts. Ethnic identity is positively related to the self-esteem of Russians in two more inclusive contexts, and, negatively associated with their life satisfaction in the least inclusive context. The ethnic and host society identities mediated the relationship between intercultural friendships and psychological well-being only in the most inclusive context.
The article raises the problem of studying the borderland in the context of the new local history, the origin of which to postnonclassical model of science causes the task of constructing its object, which is, in particular, the borderland as a zone of intercultural communication. Shown the formation of new approaches of American historiography to the study of contact zones in the context of regional history and approval polycentricity; analyzed the possibility of transferring the principles of the study of the borderlands on the study of different regions with multi-ethnic / multicultural population. Focused attention on research practice study contact areas of the North Caucasus, which revealed the specifics of the local identity, due to the preservation of the social traditions of the highlanders, despite hard cultural assimilation. Specially analyzed the historiographical culture of the North Caucasus region as a result of inoculation of the European research model on the local folk traditions.
This volume offers empirical perspectives on the current sociolinguistic situations in former Eastern Bloc countries. Its seventeen chapters analyse phenomena such as language choice, hierarchies and ideologies in multilingualism, language policies, minority languages in new legal, educational, business and migratory contexts, as well as the position of English in the region. The authors use various methodological approaches – including surveys, discourse analyses, descriptions and analyses of linguistic landscapes, and ethnography – in order to deal with sociolinguistic issues in eight countries and seven regions, from Brandenburg, Germany, in the West to Sakhalin, Russia, in the East.
This book explores developments in the three major societies of the South Caucasus – Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia – focusing especially on religion, historical traditions, national consciousness, and political culture, and on how these factors interact. It outlines how, despite close geographical interlacement, common historical memories and inherited structures, the three countries have deep differences; and it discusses how development in all three nations has differed significantly from the countries’ declared commitments to democratic orientation and European norms and values. The book also considers how external factors and international relations continue to impact on the three countries.
More than 40 languages are spoken in the relatively small territory of highland Daghestan. People living in a traditional Daghestanian village often spoke two to four languages which are either genealogically unrelated or only distantly related. The linguistic repertoire may be different in two neighboring villages. Nowadays, neighboring villages with different L1 most frequently communicate in Russian, but in the recent past local languages were used for this purpose. The aim of this paper is to trace the shifts in the language repertoire that occurred in Daghestan during the 20th century. The paper uses the results of interviews conducted in 13 mountain villages of Daghestan in 2009–2013.
The paper explores interaction between ethnic, national and religious identities in the region of South Caucasus - Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. The post-Soviet societal transformations created a new situation that was followed by the new identity-formation - an explosion of ethnic and naitonal claims. This development perplexed academic stereotypes, which assumed the relativization of particularistic idenitities in a globalizing world. The Caucasian material illustrated new trends in this debate.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.