Дисбалансы социальных и экономических функций городов и регионов
Subject Pursuing the socio-economic policy in regions requires understanding the processes of concentration of resources, population, enterprises in certain territories, mostly, in cities. Recent studies show increasing interest of economists in the Zipf's Law manifestation in the regional system, and cities distribution under the rank-size principle.
Objectives The aims are to test the Zipf's Law in Russian cities, to support or reject the hypothesis that in Russia the Zipf coefficient depends on the size of the geographical territory of the federal district.
Methods We used the least square method to analyze the Zipf's Law in Russian cities in general, and in each federal district, in particular. The sampling includes 1,123 Russian cities with population over 1,000 people in 2014. Results The Zipf's Law manifests in the entire territory of the Russian Federation. In federal districts, the Zipf coefficient ranges from -0.65 (the Far Eastern Federal District) to -0.9 (the Ural and North Caucasian Federal Districts). The analysis of the sampling of cities with population over 100 thousand people demonstrated -1.13 Zipf’s coefficient.
Conclusions The test of the Zipf's Law for Russian cities shows that it is valid for small (8,600-15,300 people) and large cities (66,700-331,000 people). The Zipf's Law fails for cities with population exceeding one million people (except for the city of St. Petersburg). The study supports the hypothesis on dependence of the Zipf coefficient on the size of a federal district.
The online edition contains mental maps of all major Russian macroregions & some regions & cities of Russia, representing ethnic, cultural & geographical specificity of the territories. Unique regional images & their localization are combined in vivid textual & visual materials, mental maps & regional onomasticons.
For the experts specialized in cultural geography & geihumanities, regional & local studies, cartography, and for a wider audience of those interested in geographical diversity of Russia.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.