Демографический барометр. Старение населения мира по оценкам ООН 2019 года.
This book is the attempt to consider the aging of population from point of view of demography, politics and sociology. The purpose of the book “Ageing Europe: Demography, Politics, Sociology” is to show that the aging of the population is an inevitable and objective process that will continue for a long time. This process requires a radical adaptation of society associated with the problem of the diversion of resources to support the elderly population, with the recognition of the special needs of the older people, with the formation of new relationships between the generations. That is why the aging of population is one of the main social problems of the 21st century and one of the main driving forces of social changes. It is a challenge that society has to accept.
Aging of population promotes society to use of unused human capital, to create the effective social policies and support services for older people. In contemporary society, the later period of life is a time for self-realization, new activities, new leisure, and new emotions. If society understands the needs of older people and provides opportunities for their realization, society can overcome the challenges caused by population aging
The aging of Russian population leads to inefficiency of Pay-As-You-Go system, where the benefits come solely from government taxation of current workers' wages, and seems to be one of the problems of Russian Pension System. This is the overview of Russian demographic settings compared to other countries from US CIA ranking. Long-run instruments of influencing demography in Russia are stated below.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.