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Article

Самостоятельность в работе: взгляд на долговременные тенденции

Вестник Института социологии. 2019. Т. 31. № 4. С. 249-267.
Попова И. П.

This article considers the autonomy at work trends in Russia for more than 15 years on the basis of monitoring data "Social differences in modern Russian society". A degree and characteristics of autonomy in work depend on external conditions and are manifested differently in different periods. The 1990s are a watershed of these periods. The established trends in the degree of manifestation of different types of autonomy in work are shown. There is a marked contradiction between the assessment of their autonomy and limiting framework of its manifestation: in comparison with 2015, in 1999, employees evaluated it significantly higher. This can be explained by adaptation to changing conditions of work and employment. At the same time, the organization of the workplace, according to the estimates of workers, does not give great opportunities to show their autonomy. This trend has been observed throughout the years of the survey. Meanwhile, workers are noticeably more likely to feel the insignificance of their level of autonomy.

The study confirmed the relationship of autonomy in labour relations with professional status: a high level of power, education, well-being. There is a decrease in autonomy of the heads of organizations and managers of the lower level. Working conditions are also important: forms of employment, contract, remuneration. Personal characteristics associated with attitudes to change in their lives, play a role. The influence of age and sex is not so significant. Trends in the situation of self-employment are noted: the growth of the scale, professional and qualification compliance. This confirms the assumption that compulsion characterizes self-employment to a lesser extent than in the 1990. It is concluded that autonomy in work is a characteristic of a more privileged social position of workers, as well as emerging social groups of self-employed.