his article1 examines shifts when it comes to employment among Russians during the financial-economic crisis years of 2014–2016, as well as during the years 2017–2018, which Russian scientists have already named the “period of negative post-crisis stabilization”. This article for the most part confirms said thesis. Despite obvious success in certain aspects (for example, unemployment around Russia has been kept at an unusually low level, while the wage gap between various regions has somewhat smoothened out in 2018 due to a decrease in income among those who live in the capital cities), several critical employment indicators show that our country has not yet recovered from the crisis. Alienation of villages is what’s the most disturbing circumstance, manifesting in the form of not only unusually high unemployment rates (over five times higher than that of the capital cities), but also villagers having to deal with injustice when it comes to their labor – delayed payment en masse, “grey” salaries and authoritarian local management. There’s also the matter of large-scale employment instability, and the enduring high risk of unemployment among younger people, especially those who perform simple physical labor. Yet another indicator would be an increase in settlement inequalities when it comes to distributing individual income within professional groups. When it comes to the capital cities, mainly managers have been negatively affected by the crisis (as a result of optimizing funding for administrations); as for regional and district center cities, mostly professionals are facing trouble due to the crisis (since there is a limited amount of “worthwhile” job offers out there). Additionally there are certain fundamental differences in types of employment and job opportunities between the capital cities and the regions, with said differences not necessarily being a consequence of the crisis itself. For example, this article concludes that a gradual transformation of Russian regional center cities into a “transfer periphery” is occurring, due to the fact that, since the early 2000’s, the amount of economically inactive people (mostly unemployed elderly folk) within them has increased twofold. The empirical basis for this study consists of sample statistics data, collected from “waves” of a national monitoring study conducted in 2014–2018 by the Federal Center for Sociological Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
The paper uses the data of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Study to analyze the change in the state of health of the Russian population in the post-Soviet period. Age is regarded as a factor with a potential to influence incidence of chronic disease, disability and self-preservation behavior. The authors stress the importance of such factors of health deterioration as smoking and alcohol consumption.
The article explores the procedural aspect of constructing structural and logical typologies with the aim of creating the innovation index - workers attitudes guiding innovation and innovation -related behavior at workplace.
Mass-media discourse is a “mirror” of sorts, which reflects general opinions and allows for understanding society’s mindset concerning migration issues. This article is devoted to analyzing the images created by Spanish mass-media regarding Latin American immigrants residing in Spain. Such a vision ultimately led to the emergence of an enduring perception of said immigrants by Spanish society from two main points of view – fear and pity. Columbians and Ecuadorians served as the prototypes for all Latin Americans who illegally entered Spain. The author reveals the reasons for the “divide” in Spanish mass-media’s perception of Columbia and Columbians, who became synonymous with danger, as well as Ecuador and Ecuadorian immigrants, who are primarily associated with Испанские СМИ о латиноамериканских мигрантах: между страхом и жалостью 110 № 4, Том 10, 2019 compassion and pity. This article examines the main stages of Latin American migration to Spain at the end of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century, which were primarily comprised in succession by immigrants from Columbia, Argentina, Venezuela and Cuba. The author characterizes the most numerous of Spain’s Latin American Diasporas. It is revealed that immigration is a collectively constructed social phenomenon. In turn the host society attributes certain characteristics to visitors (“others”) which they in fact do not possess. Such artificially assigned qualities are the result of a so-called “symbolic structure”, attributed to each “imaginary migrant”. Latin American migration to Spain is a result of a multitude of factors lying on various levels. However, it is very uncommon for the news to carefully examine the regional and global aspects of this process. This article reveals the specific image of Latin American migrants which developed in Spain towards the beginning of the 21st century. The author attempts to define the hidden ideology supporting the vast majority of those negative Latin American migrant stereotypes broadcast by national mass-media.
According to the ideas of sociologist R. Inglehart, the key factors in the formation of values are as follows: the level of economic development of one’s country of residence, and the dominant culture in those conditions where a person’s socialization occurred while they were growing up. Various countries form “cultural zones”, due to the historical connection between cultural, religious and ideological viewpoints. Shifts in values are strongly dependent on these views, while the effects of economic development fade into the background. Culture as a social institute allows us to differentiate people who represent varying ethnicities: it is engrained in one’s mentality and forces a certain way of thinking upon a person. Depending on cultural tradition, certain nations are religious, while others are not. Some nations consider divorce and abortions to be acceptable, while others condemn both. Vital values are the cultural imprint which determines people’s perception of the world. Using a comparative study of the influence which Russian and Uzbek cultures have on the vital values of students at the Northern (Arctic) Federal University, the author demonstrates the importance of traditions and practices typical to any given culture. After defining the differences between Russian and Uzbek cultures, which are expressed in language, religion, norms and traditions, further analysis is dedicated to examining key vital values. Attention is directed towards three groups of respondents: Uzbeks from Uzbekistan, Russians from Uzbekistan and Russians from Russia. Among the main vital values considered are “family, matrimony”, “education”, “love”, “friends”, “material well-being”, “religion”, “leisure time”, “health”, “patriotism”, “participation in political activities” and “working activity”. Cited is a ranked list in order of the importance of each value for all three groups. Conducted is an analysis of the content of said values, which allows for determining the similarities and differences between these groups, as well as how cultural components affect each one of them. This study resulted in revealing those values which are mainly dependent on cultural traditions, as well as those which have no effect on them.
The paper highlights the agenda of the modernization of the Russian health care and related problems. The author concentrates on the main directions of modernization, draws attention to its public interpretation, reveals mechanisms of social and cultural innovations employed in its implementation.
This article focuses on analyzing the public discourse concerning Moscow’s renovation program. Articles in Russian media outlets were used as an empirical base for this study. In the year 2017 the word “renovation” was mentioned in 9935 articles (according to “Integrum”). Articles in federal media outlets involved with “Integrum” were used as a basis for analysis. All the work was carried out during the period from March and until August 2017. The theoretical-methodological basis for this study is represented by the key concepts of T. Dridze’s dialogical model of social communication, i.e. “semantic scissors” and “quasi-communication”, the latter considering the reasons why “semantic scissors” came about in the first place. The analysis allowed for identifying the participants of the renovation process: politicians, residents of buildings, urban development organizations, construction companies. Based on analyzing media publications, it can be concluded that a contradiction of semantic “focal points” occurred between politicians and residents, while the “public agreement” was being reevaluated. This contradiction was resolved by politicians thanks to them making a few corrections to the informational campaign on the renovation program, as well as creating platforms which allowed for negotiating with residents.
The article discusses the features of political trust in post-Soviet Russia, one of the key factors in the political process, which plays an important role in ensuring political stability and sustainable development of society. Data from sociological research from the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences is used as a basis. Analysis has shown that political trust is directly related to the implementation of the basic ideas and principles of democracy, essential for expansion and deepening of democratic processes, and for creation of a full-fledged civil society in modern Russia. The data reveals the existence of a direct link between the degree and prevalence of political trust and the results of market and democratic reforms of the 1990s and 2000s. At the same time, analysis reveals a huge gap in the level of trust in certain political leaders and the main government institutions, which persists despite the significant increase in the level of confidence in individual political entities noted in recent years. Such imbalance and incoherence is one of the reasons for the current contradictions of mass social and political consciousness. In view of these important circumstances, an attempt is made to raise and discuss the issue of optimum limits of confidence in political leaders, institutions of public authorities and political parties. The authors consider the impact of extreme levels of trust and distrust in politics. They trace the dependence of institutional trust from interpersonal trust in the political sphere. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of the main reasons for people's distrust in political and social institutions, and socio-political organizations, results of which can highlight ways of neutralizing or overcoming problems revealed.
Due to large scale transformations in modern society, serious changes have occurred in the lifestyle of Russian people. Said changes have affected both the material and the moral value side of modern life. This article examines the recently established trend towards following expert opinion when making choices and decisions, both when it comes to the consumer and the professional aspect of the life of young and middle aged Russians. An increased amount of information and a fast pace of living have increased professional and personal requirements when it comes to employment or joining a social group – including a family – which leads to an increased demand for expert opinion and consulting services. Additionally, this article examines styles and means of personal development as new social practices in modern society. The understanding of development as being a natural and spontaneous process gives way to a new approach towards personality formation as being a process of orderly and systematic development, it being a result of intentional adherence to expert opinion and attending various training seminars aimed at personal and professional growth. This article gives a short analysis of websites which offer consulting services in various fields of personal and professional life, while also evaluating premises and means of creating motivation for resorting to paid expert services in the field of personal growth, as well as the effectiveness of the services being offered. The author comes to the conclusion that there is relatively high demand for those consulting services offered by personal growth coaches, bloggers who cover the subject, personal trainers at gyms, leading YouTube channels, and opinion leaders on social media. Despite there not being a way to verify the results of these services, they still remain quite popular. Personal mentorship, having a personal trainer, coach, mentor, therapist or spiritual father is regarded by a certain group of the population to be an essential part of their lives, and is even elevated to being something of prestige.
This article considers the autonomy at work trends in Russia for more than 15 years on the basis of monitoring data "Social differences in modern Russian society". A degree and characteristics of autonomy in work depend on external conditions and are manifested differently in different periods. The 1990s are a watershed of these periods. The established trends in the degree of manifestation of different types of autonomy in work are shown. There is a marked contradiction between the assessment of their autonomy and limiting framework of its manifestation: in comparison with 2015, in 1999, employees evaluated it significantly higher. This can be explained by adaptation to changing conditions of work and employment. At the same time, the organization of the workplace, according to the estimates of workers, does not give great opportunities to show their autonomy. This trend has been observed throughout the years of the survey. Meanwhile, workers are noticeably more likely to feel the insignificance of their level of autonomy.
The study confirmed the relationship of autonomy in labour relations with professional status: a high level of power, education, well-being. There is a decrease in autonomy of the heads of organizations and managers of the lower level. Working conditions are also important: forms of employment, contract, remuneration. Personal characteristics associated with attitudes to change in their lives, play a role. The influence of age and sex is not so significant. Trends in the situation of self-employment are noted: the growth of the scale, professional and qualification compliance. This confirms the assumption that compulsion characterizes self-employment to a lesser extent than in the 1990. It is concluded that autonomy in work is a characteristic of a more privileged social position of workers, as well as emerging social groups of self-employed.
This article focuses on issues such as the emergence and existence of a collective consciousness among the Soviet engineering/technical intellectuals during the period of real socialism, based on knowledge of the past embodied in the memories of those who represent this group. The analysis utilizes E. Durkheim’s ideas about collective consciousness. This man of science developed the concept of collective or common consciousness, tying it to the idea of “organic solidarity”, which can be interpreted as the ethos of a certain social group, as well as knowledge about social reality and about the place which a certain group occupies within it, with said knowledge producing collective identity. This article attempts to reconstruct certain elements of the consciousness of the Soviet engineering/technical intellectuals group based on analyzing the remaining memories of its representatives, as well as the ETW (engineering technical workers) discourse concept proposed by M. Lipovitsky, which characterizes forms of group consciousness among the said group. The whole point of the ETW discourse, according to M. Lipovitsky, is spontaneous positivism and progressism, confidence in the power of facts, as well as denying complicated polyphonic prisms when it comes to cultivating a mock form of irony given a lack of critical self-reflection. This work examines the issues of the social and professional status of the group of Soviet engineering/technical intellectuals, as well as its position in the social structure of Soviet society. In order to accomplish this, studies by Soviet sociologists, dedicated to engineering personnel, are utilized. It is stated that the professionalism of engineering/technical intellectuals was based on the level of education that they received, as well as the state’s need for a technocratic class, which would make the USSR competitive in defense and civil spheres. The professional independence of various sub-groups of the engineering/technical intellectuals was not equal, and it depended on the industrial affiliation of the organization where certain specialists were at work. Also discussed are certain professional culture characteristics of this group, including technocratic thinking, rationalism, and a critical outlook on the late Soviet period. It is shown that the memories of Soviet engineers can somewhat reveal the life and professional world of this group, they do not, however, indicate the existence of several different professional environments and forms of collective consciousness within it, which are still waiting for their researchers. Search and discussion is the purpose of this text.
The article is devoted to the issue of appearing of certain market services that replace or complete those function that have traditionally been fulfilled by the family itself. The paper analyses scientific and popular articles, forums and blogs as well as internet service supply for parenthood and childrearing with the purpose of identifying the examples of paid help to the family from the external expects and the ways of motivating parents to receive this kind of help. Creating motivation to handing over parenting and childcare functions to external experts and availability of commercial supply resources lead to appearing of the market of family services abroad and in Russia. The author makes an attempt to reveal and evaluate new, non-existent before or different from current paid services aimed at families as a target consumer, which lead to commercializing of family functions and outsourcing of traditional parental practices to external experts.
So far there have been very few studies of social entrepreneurship in Russia. More specifically, the social implications of this phenomenon have never been analyzed. This makes it difficult for experts to agree which particular enterprises could be described as social. In the meanwhile, agreement on this matter is absolutely necessary, since financial support projects, such as grants or preferential loans, need clearly defined criteria. This article singles out two key features of a social enterprise: innovation and social character. Innovation in this context implies not only the use of groundbreaking business ideas and the introduction of technical, technological, or management know-how, but also the transformation of rules and practices that govern the lifestyle of the social group involved in the enterprise’s operations. The social character of the enterprise is determined by the following: first of all, an enterprise must have its own social and cultural project, i.e. a business strategy that is aimed at meeting a certain social goal. On the one hand, it means that the enterprise is basing its development on the creative potential of its employees as the main driver of its growth and competitiveness. On the other hand, it also means that the enterprise is striving to carry out a certain mission, and has created a new system of values and a new communication environment, by promoting new ways of working together and rendering social services. We can distinguish several different types of these social projects. Secondly, a social enterprise must have a cultural concept of interacting with its personnel. We classify these concepts depending on whether the employers base their recruitment choices on operational functions or give greater priority to an employee as a person, gearing the function to his or her capabilities and interests. And thirdly, a social enterprise must be involved in social networking. This article describes the networks that surround a social enterprise. The study helps us arrive at the conclusion that a cooperative strategy involves networking capitalization – i.e. the use of the partner’s capabilities to meet the enterprise’s goals, in a way that allows the partner to benefit as well.
In the article, based on the data of the all-Russian representative sociological survey conducted in 2018 by the Institute of Sociology of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the analysis of Russians' views on the social structure of modern Russian society and social inequalities characterizing it is presented.
It is shown that inequalities currently areperceived by the population as a serious problem, and during the years of the last crisis this problem didnot receded into the background, but has become even more acute. It is demonstrated that the potential for using inequalities as a productivity incentive is gradually diminishing, as in the past five years there has been a decline in tolerance of the population towards the foundations ofinequalities that previously were considered legitimate, aswell as towards different non-monetary inequalities based on income inequality. In the existing institutional conditions, inequalities are generally regarded by the population as unfair. The gap between the expectations of population and the social reality is indicated by the observed differences between the "ideal" and "real" models of social structure of modern Russian society in the assessments of Russians. All this leads to a growing request from population for "leveling" and changing the model of the social structure of society.
On the other hand, even with the negative dynamics observed in recent years, the tolerance of the majority of Russians to legitimate inequalities, based on differences in qualifications, efforts and results, still dominates in Russian society, and this can allow the realization of productive, stimulating role of inequalities.
The request to reduce inequalities is made primarily to the state, which brings Russia closer to other European countries. However, in assessing the degree of success of how the government copes with this problem, the Russian population demonstrates most negative attitudes. This means that social inequalities represent a serious challenge for the state, since without the solution of this problem the stated goals of the "breakthrough" development of the country cannot be efficiently realized.