Сообщество творцов или сообщество читателей: срединный путь французского сюрреализма
This article explores the reader community in surrealism. Surrealism, a inherently verbal and literary movement, devotes special attention to reading: quotes and allusions, the "lives" of poets play a key role in the surrealistic works. However, the ideology of surrealism is constantly changing, becoming more complicated, undergoing theoretical evolution, and the movement itself, after verbal practices, turns first to visual and then to hybrid forms of interaction. The increasing complexity of the theory leads to the formation of a special “prepared” “reader” whose perception is “brought up” by surrealistic techniques. The key here is the development of special sensuality - a kind of hybrid perception of reality, due to the complexity of the surrealist theory. The opposition of the author / reader is gradually being destroyed by the surrealists, and the community of surrealists and their readers takes on the form of an interpreting community (S. Fish).
Avant-garde art, and especially surrealism, is characterized by a specific set of collective practices aimed at realizing non-artistic goals: gaining legitimacy, fighting competitors, and acquiring symbolic power. However, sometimes collective statements and interactions serve to reveal the creative potential of both the entire group and its individual members. For surrealists, the period of “creative collective interactions” falls mainly on the 1920s, and the group in this period is perceived as a field of artistic experiment. Together, surrealists create a number of works, hone techniques and develop a surreal canon. The influence of collective thinking on individual creativity in the 1920s leads to the fact that the surrealists begin to introduce references to the members of the group into non-collective works, actually turning them into heroes of the novel, now making them part of a mutable surreal text.
Examples of such inclusion of group members in an artistic text can be considered works of R. Desnos “Rrose Sélavy” and J.-A. Boiffard “Nomenclature”: in them, the authors deliberately introduce the names of the surrealists, in order to then transform them in the spirit of automatic writing. On the one hand, the appearance of proper names in the texts serves to consolidate the group, create and strengthen intra-group ties, but, on the other hand, such “quoting” is a guarantee of surrealism and confirms the materiality of the word game. Being a part of the surreal world, the surrealist by his presence in it proves the reality of its existence.
This is a review of Ales Erjavec's book Aesthetic Revolutions and Twentieth-Century Art Movements.
А poet, philologist, theorist and propagandist of the poetical avant-garde, a founder of The Academy of Zaum – in that manner Sergey Biryukov is usually introduced. There are no exact boundaries between these author statuses: in the poetical practice, Biryukov often acts as a critic, researcher and popularizer of the experimental poetry - and in critical or even literary activity, he can fall back on the expressive discourse by concluding his speeches with reading his own poems.
Certainly, Sergey Biryukov is not the only one now who combines poetical with critical, research, publishing and educational practice. However, his case is worth mentioning as a separate point because of the authorial “ahistorical avant-garde” conception, which succeeds to the “historical avant-garde” idea of I. Smirnov and R. Dering-Smirnova and evolves it as well. The "ahistorical avant-garde" for Biryukov embraces almost the whole literature experiment field of the latter half of the 20th and the early 21st century. Moreover, this concept is essentially an oxymoron. It abolishes the idea of the progressive growth of art, which historical avant-garde problematizes, though, but does not remove specifying itself, at least, as «art vanguard».
The avant-garde "spacellation" (transformation of time into space) gets patterns some kind of "museumification" in the "ahistorical avant-garde", which implies a perception the entire avant-garde heritage as a museum or an art gallery, consisting of interconnected showrooms range. Sergey Biryukov, as a researcher and publisher, fills these spaces with the legacy of avant-gardists and “proto-avant-gardists”; as a critic and organizer of literary life - with works of his contemporaries; and as an experimental poet – with his own poetical practices. It is small wonder that chapters of scientific and non-fiction books of the poet are followed with small texts anthologies of avant-garde and neo - (post-) avant-garde authors. Poetical works of Sergey Biryukov also take the place among them. However, his poetic books are of the poetological nature, at the same time. They signify the context of the “ahistorical avant-garde” through the complex system of dedications, poetic reflections and intertextual references. The figure of the Russian futurist poet Velimir Khlebnikov take a center stage in the system.
In this regard, Sergey Biryukov’s poetical subject itself is of particular interest with his “flexible” self-identity. On the one hand, we can find auto-reflective texts (strictly “lyrical”, elegiac-meditative as well and even romance-erotic as well) in his writing. In other words, here we lay emphasis on traditional texts, despite its experiment form. On the other hand, “poetological” texts and “manifest” texts (where a subject is a “poet”, an “experimental poet and a research poet) make a significant part of poetical poet corpus. Therefore, Biryukov’s “poetical subject” generates, generalizes, synthesizes and comments the whole avant-garde legacy at his creative practice level.
The article is devoted to the study of dialogue in the surrealist work “The Process of Barres” and its role in the construction of the collective identity. The surrealists turn the dialogue into a meta-technique: on the one hand, it is often used as a creative tool, with its help collective works are created and surreal practices are transformed; on the other hand, the focus on dialogue within the group characterizes the special forms of social interaction among the surrealists. In this paper, we will talk about group communication and how collective dialogue, imposing moral and ethical restrictions on participants, forms collective identity and prepares the final break of Breton’s group with DADA.
Materials of the International Scientific Conference "This is not Conceptualism" held on October 24-27, 2019 at the Faculty of Philology of the University of Belgrade
In the current study, we evaluate relations between parameters of the ideas exchange process and individual creativity. The following parameters of creativity were analyzed: productivity, flexibility, and originality. Effects of ideas sharing on parameters of creativity were assessed in an idea exposure paradigm. Stimulus ideas were subdivided into 4 semantic categories: with high level of novelty; with low level of originality; of aggressive content; "silly". The hypotheses were that the individual creativity is influenced by the semantic characteristics and the way of the exposure of stimulus ideas; that the originality of subject's ideas depends on the level of novelty of stimulus ideas. We analyzed obtained data using structural equation modeling (SEM). Experimental results showed the most intensive changes in creativity in groups, where ideas with high level of novelty, as well as "silly", "senseless" had been exposed. The results of the study could be applied to a practice of generation of novel ideas and their assessment, as well as to various procedures and stages for the stimulation of individual creativity.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.