Matching between Students and Universities: What are the Sources of Inequalities of Access to Higher Education?
It is assumed that a perfect balance between student academic achievement and university quality is beneficial both for students and higher education institutions (HEIs). Matching theory predicts the existence of perfect matching between the two groups in the absence of transaction costs associated with university enrollment. However, in this study we show cases of mismatch situations in Russia under the Unified State Exam (USE) – the standardized student admission mechanism. This research studies the reasons for this phenomenon for minimal transaction costs and the emergence of unequal access to HEIs. Based on data on Moscow high school graduates who entered university, the determinants of the mismatch between the quality of universities and applicant abilities are assessed. It is shown that although in most cases favorable matching results are established, the individual student achievement results themselves are subject to the influence of school and family characteristics. Thus, inequality of access can be formed at stages preceding HEI enrollment.
The work is devoted to estimates of individual returns to additional professional training (APT) on the example of a metallurgical enterprise of Sverdlovsk region of 2006–2010. We compare results of the OLS, fixed effects and difference-in-differences estimators. APTs that expand possibilities of intra firm mobility showed statistically significant influence on wages. The types of training referred by us to the rise of qualification have significantly smaller impact on earnings. The found effects are expressed at men in comparison with women more brightly.
In this article, we consider the impact of personal contacts on the labor market outcome. Unlike previous studies, we do not assume any particular network structure or vacancies communication protocol. Instead, we state three general properties of matching functions that allow us to establish the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium and characterize the impact of social ties on the labor market. In particular, we show that a monotonically increasing matching function in socialization level is a necessary and sufficient condition for having monotonically decreasing unemployment and increasing wage and market tightness. However, the same does not apply to vacancy rate. We establish a condition under which a monotonically increasing matching function produces a vacancy rate that first increases in socialization level, but then decreases.
This article examines the relationship between pre-entry coaching (both in terms of money and effort) and the achievement of Russian high school graduates as measured by the results of the Unified State Examination (USE). Using a data set of students from the 16 biggest Russian cities, which includes information on USE results, family background, school characteristics, and patterns on pre-entry coaching, I estimate the factors that determine the final USE results. Characteristics of pre-entry courses (the duration of the program as well as the total fee) are related to higher USE scores, but the size of this association is moderate. Attending individual classes has a significant (but still moderate) relationship with the USE score in Russian, but the duration of a program moderately and positively relates to the USE scores. Other factors, like parental education, family income, student abilities, and the type of school attended are significant predictors of USE results in Russian, Mathematics, and the average USE score.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.