Гипотеза Якобсона, Глеб / Иванович и перверсия: безумие Г.И. Успенского и его рассказ "Выпрямила"
The paper focuses on analysis of discourse of G. Uspensky’s mental disorder. Drawing from R. Jakobson’s hypothesis, according to which the writer’s insanity is connected to his tendency to metonymy, I analyze G. Uspensky’s hallucinations and delusional ideas. Personality dissociation, observed during the period of disease, is explained by a metonymic cognitive pattern, which “split” the writer’s conception of sexuality in a special manner. Having established that writer’s ambiguous attitude towards sexuality is a semantic core of his delusional discourse, I examine a short story “Straightened” (1885) and prove that its semantic structure is motivated by the same diseased thoughts and attempts to comprehend sexuality in an uncontradictory way.
The article attempts to classify lexical units denoting a human being in English, paying special attention to substandard and informal words. These units constitute the periphery of a broad category “human being”. The article offers a semantic classification of these lexemes and describes the cognitive processes accounting for their differentiation.
The Realist interpretation of 'War and Peace' - articulated by Martin Wight and Stanley Hoffmann - is based on Tolstoy's understanding of history as it is elaborated in his account of the Napoleonic invasion in the second epilogue of the book. There Tolstoy puts forward a mechanistic view of international relations which are assumed to be governed by inexorable laws of history determining human behaviour and limiting man's exercise of free will. However, Tolstoy's subjection of man to the workings of impenetrable laws of history in the second epilogue is at variance with a multiplicity of conscious moral choices that his three main characters - Nikolay Rostov, Andrey Bolkonsky and Pierre Bezukhov - make throughout the book. It is argued that the different treatment of the freedom vs. necessity problem in the fictional and historical narrative can only be understood contextually, i.e. from within Tolstoy' rejection of the Enlightenment tradition of scientific and moral inquiry.
The article deals, in a typological perspective, with verbs describing sounds of inanimate objects (cf. the noise of a door being opened, of coins in somebody’s pocket, of a river, etc.). The analysis is based on the data from four languages (Russian, German, Komi-Zyrjan, Khanty), which were obtained from dictionaries, corpora and field investigation. We discuss, first, the primary meanings of these verbs and identify the parameters that underlie semantic distinctions between them (type of sound source and its features, type of situation causing the emission of a sound, acoustic properties of sounds). Then we consider the derived meanings of sound verbs, which are developed through metonymic and metaphoric shifts and analyze the mechanisms behind each of these shifts. Finally, we examine a type of semantic change in our data which cannot be explained in terms of either of those mechanisms and hence represents a separate kind of meaning shift.
Realism is making a comeback in Europe. This book brings together a new generation of realist scholars. It provides a rigorous survey for specialists seeking to understand the dynamics of international relations in a time of change. The volume thus seeks to explore the European dimension to neoclassical realism. The hope with this book is that it will spark a debate that, in time, might lead to the re-emergence of a distinctly European realist school which draws on the roots of the historical, non-American realist tradition, benefiting from insights in the liberal-constructivist paradigm. Through detailed case studies, the book illustrates that power and influence remain fruitful, even indispensable variables through which to understand the formation of foreign policy.
The paper theorizes on the general architectonics of idealized cognitive models (ICMs) and their involvement in metonymy and metaphor. The article posits that an ICM's structure should reflect the architecture of the neural network/s engaged in processing of a given concept. The ICM nodes, or cogs, construct a complex, hierarchically organized neural connections, with the superior nodes being highly selective, invariant and prototypical. Signals travelling from one cog to another within one ICM are essentially metonymical, while a cog shared by two or more ICMs marks a metaphoric shift.
This comparative study shows how the revival of geopolitics came not despite, but because of, the end of the Cold War. Disoriented in their self-understandings and conception of external role by the events of 1989, many European foreign policy actors used the determinism of geopolitical thought to find their place in world politics quickly. The book develops a constructivist methodology to study causal mechanisms, and its comparative approach allows for a broad assessment of some of the fundamental dynamics of European security.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.