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Article

К дискуссии о генезисе древнегреческой философии

Матвейчев О. А.

The article is a historiographical overview of the main concepts of the genesis of ancient Greek philosophy appeared in the XVIII-XX centuries. The author argues that Greek philosophy was not perceived as an independent, peculiar phenomenon until the XVIII century; therefore, the question of the origins and genesis could not be formulated. “Turning to the Greeks” in the history of philosophy comes from D. Tiedemann, the author of “Zeitgeist”concept. Hegel’s philosophical system and the manifestation of the principle of historicism in its most complete form had a huge impact on the subsequent development of philosophical thought. Hegel devotes Greek philosophy special place among other stages of the development of the Absolute Spirit; he argues that ancient Greek philosophy was the beginning of philosophy in its proper sense. E. Zeller radicalized Hegelian idea and entered into controversy with Orientalism, which dominated in the beginning and in the middle of the XIX century. Zeller denied any external influence on early Greek philosophy. Simultaneously, Zeller questioned Hegelian apriorism. In fact, the subsequent history of philosophy was developed in polemics either with Hegel or with Zeller. There are several conflicting approaches to the problem of the origin of ancient Greek philosophy in the historical and philosophical doctrines of the XIX-XX century. Methodologically, Hegel’s and his followers’ apriorism opposed Zeller’s empiricism. J. Burckhardt, W. Windelband, T. Gompertz, H. Diels were close to this empiricism. The discussion between the adherents of mytho-genic concept (F.M. Cornford, A. Weber, G. Thomson) and epistemo-genic concept (W. Windelband, T. Gompertz, J. Burnet, H. Diels) was about continuity between philosophy and previous forms of consciousness. In addition, there were thinkers who attempted to overcome extremes of two positions (W.К.С. Guthrie, J.-P. Vernant). The dispute between supporters of autochthonous hypothesis (F. Hölderlin, Hegel, E. Zeller, J. Burnet) and Oriental hypothesis (F. Schleiermacher, A. Gladish, A. Röth, P. Tannery, U. Hölscher, G.S. Kirk, J.Е. Raven, W.К.С. Guthrie, M.L. West, W. Burkert) was about internal and external sources of early Greek philosophy. In one form or another, the same discussions continue in our time. In order to enter into a genuine, deep essence of contemporary debates, which is not always recognized by the disputants, it is necessary to know well their origins and the context of occurrence Keywords: natural-language-ofdialectical-philosophy; formal-axiological-semantics; evaluation-functional-meaning; evaluation-variable; evaluation-function; compositionality.