‘Генуезькі і венеційські колонії Причорномор'я і Приазов'я в політиці і міжнародних відносинах у 1400–1475 роках: між політичними гравцями регіону (Османська імперія, татарські ханства, Королівство Польське і Велике князівство Литовське).’ Київські історичні студії 2(9) (2019):
Towards the end of the Middle Ages, the Black Sea region became an area of increasing political importance. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries in this region (the Black Sea and the Azov Sea) and, more broadly, in the regions of Southeastern and Eastern Europe, the interests of numerous political players were confronted: Genoa, Venice, Florence and Pisa, Papal Rome, the Holy Roman Empire, the kingdoms of England, France and Aragon, the Duchy of Burgundy, the Byzantine Empire, Georgia, Russian principalities, Tatar states, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Kingdom of Poland, Hungary and Wallachia, the Mamluk Sultan and, finally, the growing Ottoman Empire were just a short list of actors on the political scene at the time. However, against the background of the growing Ottoman threat, neither the metropolis of the colonies itself, Genoa, nor Casimir IV, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, nor Vladislaus II, King of Bohemia and of Hungary, who was also an enemy of the Ottomans, could help Caffa. Caffa and other Genoese and Venetian colonies were captured by the Ottomans in 1475. Thus, we can see that the Southeastern Europe saw many wars in the fifteenth century, which eventually led to the domination of the Ottoman Empire.