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Article

History of tuberculosis is associated with lower exhaled nitric oxide levels in HIV-infected children

AIDS. 2019. Vol. 33. No. 11. P. 1711-1718.
Odland J. Ø.

HIV disrupts host defense mechanisms and maintains chronic inflammation in the lung. Nitric oxide is a marker of lung inflammation and can be measured in the exhaled air. We investigated the relationship between exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), and airway abnormalities in perinatally HIV-infected children aged 6–19 years.
In total, 222 HIV-infected and 97 HIV-uninfected participants were included. Among HIV-infected participants, 57 (25.7%) had a history of past TB; 56 (25.2%) had airway obstruction, but no prior TB. HIV status was associated with lower eNO level [mean ratio 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI 0.65–0.97), P = 0.03]. Within the HIV-infected group, history of past TB was associated with lower eNO levels after controlling for age, sex and time of eNO testing [0.79 (95% CI 0.67–0.94), P = 0.007].
 HIV infection and history of TB were associated with lower eNO levels. eNO levels may be a marker of HIV and TB-induced alteration in pulmonary physiology; further studies focused on potential causes for lower eNO levels in HIV and TB are warranted.