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Article

Общественная и гражданская экспертизы: современные российские дискуссии

Paper devoted to analysis of contemporary academician  and expert discussions about practices of public and (or) citizen expertise. Three main approaches to this notions are formulated as result of this analysis. First – when customer of expertise is in focus of analyses. Public (citizen) expertise is expertise, booked by NGOs according to this approach. Performers of expertise are specialists-experts. Second approach deals with expertise – monitoring of some governmental process  (human rights of prisoners, or electoral process, as examples)which realized by NGO members (sometime together with  specialists-experts). In framework of the third approach the citizen position (or absent of it) of specialist-expert in the focus of attention: possibility for the to define agenda of expertise by themselves, to define mist actual social-politic problems and to propose decisions of them.