Рецензия на книгу С.Г. Дрюбина, В.И. Иванова, А.М. Гвоздева «Методология планирования внутригородских пассажирских перевозок» (1935)
Review on book written in 1935
Foreign experience was studied as part of the Russian travel behavior monitoring study. This paper aims to outline conceptual and methodological differencies between ―travel behavior‖, ―mobility‖ and ―motility‖ terms. The results of analysis allow us to define two projected paths in conceptualization of the key terms. The first, so-called ―management‖ stream, took into account the ―motility‖ concept. On the other hand we outlined the ―academic‖ concept and the fundamental meaning of ―mobility‖. But the widespread use results in terminological confusion. As a result, we treat the conceptualization problem as the main issue: how can we differentiate between these terms, especially in the presence of the ―travel behaviour‖ term. We define the ―travel behaviour‖ as a synthesis of two prospects. The deficit of explanation opportunities are explained through analysis of ―management‖ concept. But ―academic‖ tools seem useful for theory and methodology of transportation studies. Moreover, the understanding of travel behaviour in ―management‖ stream is slightly shifting from economics to social issues.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.