Глаголы с семантикой падения в современном персидском языке
The article provides a classification of approximately 30 verbs used to describe situations associated with the falling of animate and inanimate objects. The authors conclude that in the modern Persian language, the choice of the exact verb to denote falling depends on the degree of integrity of the falling object in question. Only situations in which verbs are used in their direct meaning are considered; where necessary, stylistic differences in the use of verbs are discussed separately. Examples are taken from both literary and colloquial Persian (all examples have been assembled from Internet resources). The authors conclude that in modern Persian language, when choosing a verb to describe a fall, the integrity of the falling object matters. Analysis of the cited material shows that the most frequent verb is oftādan. It is used regardless of which surface and along which path the object falls (solid or liquid), as well as the fact that the object remains on the surface or falls under a layer, into a liquid or granular substance, or into a vessel. However, the scope of the verb oftādan is limited. It does not serve situations of falling populations associated with the disintegration of an integral object into parts, and only in very rare cases is it used to describe the fall of liquid masses, loose bodies and precipitation. In situations describing the fall of parts of an object or the destruction of a structure, the verbs rixtan, rizeš kardan, foru rixtan are used. Also, to describe various situations related to the semantics of the fall, in modern Persian there are a number of verbs with a limited scope. All examples are taken from Internet resources and provided with links.