Language and Administration in a Recently Published Collection of Sargonic Documents
A new volume of the CUSAS series, published by L. Milano and A. Westenholz, provides the readers with an unprecedented wealth of highly informative Late Sargonic documents. The present article is an in-depth analysis of this remarkable theme, focusing on a variety of philological and linguistic issues. It also contains a complete glossary of Akkadian words and forms occurring in CUSAS 27.
In cuneiform writing, there is a little-studied category of signs known as “check marks” (German Merkzeichen or Archivvermerke, French coches or marques de contrôle). They have the shape of simple horizontal, vertical, oblique and angular wedges or scratches, their repetitions, combinations or impressions of the round end of the stylus. The functions of the check marks may be divided into intratextual and extratextual ones. The intratextual marks helped the scribe proofread the text after it had been composed. The extratextual marks pointed at some relation between the text and the real world. The check marks of both kinds appear as early as in archaic texts of Uruk, at the turn of the 3rd millennium BC, and remain in use until the 1st millennium BC. The first part of the study shall provide a brief overview of the check marks that were in use in different cuneiform corpora. The second part shall describe the use of check marks in a particular cuneiform corpus, the archives of Mari (Tell Hariri) dating to the early 18th century BC.
The article deals with the toponyms occurring in the Aramaic and Arabic texts of the Late Sassanian and Early Moslem period concerning the biography of the prominent Eastern Syrian mystical writer Isaac of Nineveh. Two particular cases are analysed. Firstly, it is reported by Ishodnah and other writers that Isaac left Qatar in the mid-7th century and became bishop «of Nineveh», whence his cognomen Ninwāyā. The history of Nineveh and its mythological reception are traced to the 7th c. BC. Due to the never forgotten glory of Assyrian past, any new centre which ever re-emerged at Kuyunjik or Nabi-Yunus hills (which had been parts of Assyrian Nineveh) and even the pre-Mosul settlement on the opposite bank of the Tigris (once called Nav-Ardashir) received the name of «Nineveh» and were thought to be the same Assyrian Nineveh. It was this western pre-Mosul settlement that is really implied by «Nineveh» of Isaac. The population lived on the western bank of the Tigris in Nav-Ardashir, while the historical city of Nineveh had been abandoned. Bishops of Nineveh resided in the monastery of Beth Abe (in the Forests). It can be concluded that the term Ninwaya in the episcopal title of the Church of the East was a mere convention. Secondly, the toponym Matut is brought under analysis. After leaving Beth Nuhadra Isaac moved northwards to Susiana (Beth Huzaye), where he spent some time in the monastery of Rabban Shapuhr before moving to the mountain cave where he spent the rest of his hermitic life. The name of the mountain in Aramaic sounds Matut and it is said that Matut encircled Susiane which makes «Matut Mt.» to be a rather vast segment of Zagros. It is impossible to explain the horonym quite reliably, but it can be hypothetically interpreted as a late form of Ancient Mesopotamian GN Mat-Utem (a part of Zagros region at upper Lesser Zab was called that as early as the 2nd mill. BC), used in extended sense.
The first part of the paper is devoted to the problem of reconstruction of Tablet IV of the Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh. The second part deals with the place name Ḫamrān in an Old Babylonian Gilgamesh tablet from the Schøyen Collection. It is proposed that Ḫamrān is to be identified with Armānum, a city mostly known from the royal inscriptions of Naram-Sin.
This is a review of the two-volume edition of nearly 450 Sargonic administrative texts from Adab that belong to the Cornell collection of cuneiform documents.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.