Стандартизация цифрового производства: возможности для России и ЕАЭС
The shift to digital technologies in various industries is one of the key goals in the digital agenda. Due to the essential role of interoperability of products and elements in complex systems, standardization stays in the forefront of government policy and business. In manufacturing systems, standards are of a prime importance, since they serve as a channel for modernization and innovation speedup. This paper makes a contributionto the currently rare literature on digital manufacturing standardization as a policy tool to promote digital technologies in business. By comparing five national cases of China, Germany, Japan, the Republic of Korea and the USA, we introduce national models of standardization in smart manufacturing according to the extent of state participation in standardization. In doing so, we examined initiatives in industry, digitalization, the development of a national system of standards, the reference architecture of digital production, as well as the countries’ cooperation in the field. Along with this, an overview of international initiatives in the field is presented, namely the ISO and the IEC. Taking into account the existing landscape, an assessment of the Russian case of digitalization in manufacturing and standardization is presented. Like China, Russia follows the third model of standardization. Given the results, we developed recommendations for Russia with the aim of intensifying efforts at standardization and the country’s presence in the international agenda, as well as to develop a Russian framework for digital transformation in sectors and achieve related economic effects.
The collection contains scientific articles of the international scientific-practical conference "State Administration and Public Service: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow in the Context of E-Government and the Digital Economy", held at the Higher School of Public Administration (HSAA) of MV Lomonosov Moscow State University in the framework of the XIV NAUKA Science Festival 0+ (October 11-13, 2019). The materials of the collection reflect the results of research conducted by undergraduates of the first and second courses of the Higher School of Public Administration. This scientific publication will be useful to undergraduate students, undergraduates, researchers, and everyone interested in the current state and development trends of the theory of public service, public administration and management, as well as their practice in modern conditions of digitalization of public life.
If you want to make beautiful music,
you must play the black and the white notes together.
Richard M. Nixon, the 37th President of USA
The problem of studying the achievement of consensus in social groups is related to the complexity of organizing such a study, especially for large groups, with more than five participants. In connection with the above, it is advisable to investigate the phenomenon of consensus in large social groups, using the modeling methodology.
The article presents the results of statistical modeling describing the dependence of the time to reach consensus on the number and authoritarianism of a social group members using two mathematical models of consensus achievement in a group based on the model proposed by DeGroot and model of the cellular automaton.
The main problems of attaining consensus under the settings of the proposed model during the development of consensus standards in technical committees on standardization were analyzed. It is shown that an increase in the number of social group members and their authoritarianism has an adverse impact on the time for reaching consensus and increases the disunity of the group.
A model of the cellular automaton modeling the achievement of consensus within the negotiation process has been were studied: the initial discrepancy between the opinions of the members of the group and the space of opinions of the members of the group. In particular, it is shown that if initially the views of the members of the group are radically different, then the process of reaching consensus will be as long as possible if one of the participants is absolutely authoritative. If initially the views of the members of the group are close, then the process of reaching consensus will also be as long as possible if both members of the group are absolutely compromise.
The article discusses the dynemics of the legislation of the Russion Federation on standardization and draws conclusions about its intermittent character
This paper presents an approach for developing Linux interface standards aimed to improve portability of applications among different Linux distributions. The approach is based on usage of database-driven informational system that simplifies creation and maintenance of interface standards by standardization committees and their usage by application and distribution developers. A logical model of interfaces between Linux applications and distributions is described which is used to design schema of the informational system's database.
In terms of actual tendency of innovations being the driven part of the world economy development it is necessary to describe the situation with innovations and standardization in Russia. The article is describing Russian innovations eco-system, regulations in innovations and standardization of innovations. Main standardization bodies and challenges in standardization are briefly described. Possible ideas for the development of innovations system in Russia are proposed.
This issue reveals problems and contradictions standing from the technical legislation reform in Russia. System of technical reglaments, new to Russia, excludes most, but not all standards from the sphere of public protection provided by the State. As a result, standards provided by the Technical Legislation Law are freewill standards and standards provided by other acts are compulsory. It disrupts the system of standards and increases risks and expenses of producers, customers and the State.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.