The article addresses basic Data Centers (DC) drivers of price and engineering, which specify rules and price evaluation for creation and further operation. DC energy efficiency concept, its influence on DC initial price, operation costs and Total Cost of Ownership.
Information technologies have evolved from their traditional back-offi ce role to a strategic resource role that can not only support but also shape business strategies. Still, diff erent analytical sources indicate that only a small number of projects complete on-time and on-budget, leading to initially specifi ed goals and results. The main problem is the creation and formalization of an IT–business alignment mechanism which for over a decade has been ranked as a top-priority management concern and is widely covered in theoretical literature. However, the fi eld is dominated by conceptual studies, while there is little research on practical ways to achieve the alignment. Moreover, most of the existing research focuses on the alignment assessment using questionnaire methods based on the subjective judgement of IT and business executives. From this point of view, Enterprise Architecture development as a methodological approach to the mutually aligned business and IT architectures’ design, represents a suitable tool for solving this problem. However, most of the existing EA approaches do not distinguish between diff erent IT–business alignment perspectives. This paper attempts to provide practical guidance for IT–business alignment as well as strategic guidance for EA development by integrating the traditional Strategic Alignment Model and the TOGAF framework.
A method for information retrieval based on annotated suffix trees (AST) is presented. The method is based on a string-to-document relevance score calculated using AST as well as fragment reverse indexing for improving performance. We developed a search engine based on the method. This engine is compared with some other popular text aggregating techniques: probabilistic latent semantic indexing (PLSA) and latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA). We used real data for computation experiments: an online store’s xml-catalogs and collections of web pages (both in Russian) and a real user’s queries from the Yandex. Wordstat service. As quality metrics, we used point quality estimations and graphical representations. Our AST-based method generally leads to results that are similar to those obtained by the other methods. However, in the case of inaccurate queries, AST-based results are superior. The speed of the AST-based method is slightly worse than the speed of the PLSA/LDA-based methods. Due to the observed correlation between the average query performing time and the string lengths at the AST construction phase, one can improve the performance of the algorithm by dividing the texts into smaller fragments at the preprocessing stage. However, the quality of search may suffer if the fragments are too short. Therefore, the applicability of annotated suffix tree techniques for text retrieval problems is demonstrated. Moreover, the AST-based method has significant advantages in the case of fuzzy search.
Nowadays, the e-learning market is rapidly growing both fi nancially and geographically. More and more often, e-learning resources involve a multicultural audience and are becoming available to people with diff erent educational backgrounds. However, there are cognitive specifi city and diff erent approaches to the learning process in diff erent cultures. This paper is devoted to illustrating a possible solution for adaptation of content of an e-learning resource to a multicultural audience. The solution described applies the adaptive content concept based on individual educational trajectories and preparing content according to the individual cultural characteristics of learner and his or her competencies, both obtained and desired. During the research, the learner-centric model of learning processes was developed. In the article, both high-level and detailed models are presented. Principles of planning the individual learning trajectory based on the learner’s obtained and desired competencies, and statistical data about his or her learning style are also described. As an example of the possibility to apply historical data on how learning style aff ects successful passing through the learning course, the statistical analysis is provided. The analysis relies on person-course deidentifi ed dataset from seven courses on HarvardX and MITx platforms provided during the 2013/14 academic year. This analysis demonstrated the statistical signifi cance of several parameters. A comparison of algorithms for estimating the probability of successfully passing the course depending on the learning style, is also presented.
This research paper explores the most developed methodologies used for multifaceted modeling of organizational structures. It is asserted that the existing methodologies (DEMO – Design and Engineering Methodology for Organizations, BORM – Business Object Relation Modeling and OntoUML) provide tools for analysis of the organization and its business processes through diff erent ways. They lead to diff erent results and make the process of organization modeling complicated. There is no software to support work with these methodologies together. The purpose of this research is to create a unifi ed meta-model (within the Eclipse EMF technology) for a new methodology based on the existing ones and to analyze the completeness of these methodologies for describing enterprise architecture. It will serve as a basis for a new open software platform for multifaceted modeling of the organization. In this research, we have compared the above-mentioned methodologies and concluded that despite the fact that these methodologies provide an analysis of diff erent aspects of organizational structure, they have a common basic set of concepts. This study demonstrates the implementation of the Ecore model that is built on the basis of the selected group of common elements of these methodologies. We have also found that the combination of the considered methodologies contains all the concepts inherent in the systematic approach to the modeling of organizational structure. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the aspects of the organization that can be modeled by the methodologies considered. Using the Zachman framework, it was shown that: the DEMO, BORM and OntoUML methodologies allow us to describe in detail the business processes that take place at diff erent levels of the organization, from the ontological to the datalogical, and therefore provide comprehensive information for the multifaceted modeling of an organization. However, none of the existing methodologies takes the time component and goal-setting into consideration.
In universities and technical colleges with relevant IT qualifications in one semester multiple streams, courses and specializations can use software products for training purposes. IT services of universities should deal with the challenge of creating the infrastructure of educational applications that can support the educational process. We note that the number of specializations which study information technology are growing every year (for example, in HSE there are disciplines-minors, which can enroll students coming from any field). Also in the recent years, online courses have started to become popular. If the load is not planned ahead taking into account future trends, the power of even the most high-tech infrastructure will be insufficient. Calculation of the corresponding load on the infrastructure must be made in the planning process of the disciplines, so that we can reserve appropriate facilities, and thus organize an effective learning process.
Software developers use a variety of benchmarking tools that are complex and do not provide the necessary information for the participants of educational process planning.
This article discusses the construction of a simulation model that supports the educational process planning. The simulation is carried out using the capabilities of the tool AnyLogic 7. The aim of this work is to develop a simulation model designed to estimate the load on the information system used in the educational process. In addition, besides the description of the model, the article presents the results of calculations used for various options of the information system (private cloud or on a server at the university). The simulation results were confirmed by data obtained during practical classes at the university. This model gives us the opportunity to plan the educational process in order to achieve uniformity of the load on the services. If necessary, the model allows us to make a decision about the location of the educational information system: on servers of the university or in a private cloud.
The Jaynes’ information principle (formalism) advanced for the solution of problems of statistical thermodynamics is applied to the solution of a task of assessing the fairness of a contractor who carries out restoration work on a technical system by the method of replacing elements.
The task is the following. The customer possesses a fleet of similar technical devices (for example, cars) certain elements of which are subject to planned replacement. According to the contract, such replacements are carried out by a contractor. Spare elements of three types can be used: new original, new non-original and restored elements. The contract specifies what percentage of spare elements of each type may be used. It is difficult for the customer to check what type of element has been applied. However, for an element of each type it is possible to calculate the average time before the next replacement will be required. The actual average time between requirements for replacement is fixed by the customer.
Based on these data and with the help of Jaynes’ information principle, it is possible to find the most objective probabilities of using elements of the various types. Having compared these probabilities with restrictions specified in the contract, the customer draws a conclusion about the fairness of the contractor and, if necessary, takes appropriate action. According to Jaynes’ principle, the most objective are probabilities for which entropy according to Shannon reaches a maximum under the set of restrictions. Respectively, the problem of finding their probabilities is simplified to a problem of finding the maximum nonlinear function under the set of restrictions. In this article, the task is formulated mathematically and solved for a case of three variables using the Lagrange method. Calculations for a real situation from the author’s practice are given.
The article focuses on corporate information systems intended for management accounting and budgeting (MAB) in projectized construction companies. The author argues that the successful implementation of such systems requires a comprehensive approach involving the development or the adaptation of MAB philosophy taking into account the software functionality and related business processes. The author demonstrates that ERP software is the most effective technological platform for corporate MAB systems of projectized companies. This is explained by the fact that the ERP systems have both sufficient functionality for project management automation and appropriate tools for management accounting and budgeting. Relying on this analysis, a comprehensive approach and appropriate solutions for developing corporate MAB systems in projectized construction companies are proposed. The methodological solutions proposed in the field of MAB design take into account the specific nature of a contractor who carries out construction projects for external customers. In particular, the following methodological solutions are presented: establishing temporary project-based profit centers in the construction company’s financial structure; using administrative quasi-projects and the “direct costing” method for fixed overheads costing in certain departments; establishing temporary profit centers related to production departments (internal subcontractors). This paper also shows how such a financial structure may be used in the SAP ERP system relying on the end-to-end “project” attribute. A budgeting structure with two versions of the corporate master budget is proposed. The first version of the structure is based on the contracting plans and the second – on the last approved project budget versions. The paper shows that monitoring implementation is necessary for both master budget versions. The main assertions and results of the paper are applied in the implementation of a corporate MAB information system based on SAP ERP in a construction company. The results of the system’s implementation and operation have shown significant improvement in the key financial indicators of the company, including profits, rate of return and net cash flow.
The article examines a system for controlling the ecological modernization dynamics of enterprises developed with the help of simulation modelling methods and implemented using the example of the Republic of Armenia (RA). The system has been developed for strategic decision-making directed at modernization of enterprises of RA, their transformation from an initial non-ecological state towards the state of ecologically pure manufacturing. The main feature of the software developed is an original agent-based model describing the dynamics of the ecological-economics system. The system has been implemented using the AnyLogic platform. This model is integrated with a multidimensional data warehouse, genetic optimizing algorithm (modifi ed for the bi-objective optimization problem of an ecological-economics system), a subsystem of simulation results visualization (Graphs, Google Maps) and other software modules designed with use of the Java technologies. The target functionalities of the bi-objective optimization problem of the ecological-economics system are minimized integrated (accumulated) volume of total emissions into the atmosphere and maximized integrated (averaged) index of industrial production of the agent’s population. The problem was formulated and solved for the fi rst time. Moreover, values of objectives are calculated by means of simulation, as the result of activity of all agent-enterprises in a population and taking into account their internal interaction. The 270 enterprises of RA which are the main stationary sources of emissions of harmful substances were selected for the research. In addition, there is a generalized agent-consumer and the agent-government completing ecological regulation through the mechanisms of penalties, subsidies and rates of emissions fees. The simulation core is the developed algorithm of behavior for each agent-enterprise providing the mechanism of agent transition from an initial non-ecological state towards other possible states. At the same time, control of the evolutionary dynamics of agents is implemented with the help of the suggested genetic algorithm. As a result, the system we developed makes it possible to search Pareto-optimal decisions for a bi-objective optimization problem of the agent-based ecological-economics system.
This paper focuses on the questions of combining management accounting and an expert approach for decision making in the sphere of economics and management. The background of such a combination is that within both approaches there are a decision making goal, a set of alternatives and criteria for their assessment, as well as the possibility of multivariate evaluation of the alternatives for different possible situations. The basic decision making processes provide similar data processing. Their scope relies on classification of assessment criteria into three types: quantitative criteria, for which source information for management accounting is available, quantitative criteria with lack of source information for management accounting, and qualitative criteria, for which management accounting methods are not applicable. Relying on such classification, four basic processes are defined: pure management accounting, management accounting supplemented by estimates according to predefined rules, management accounting supplemented by expert estimates, and the pure expert approach. Relying on different basic processes, fifteen working processes (including the generalized working process including all four basic processes) are defined. Conclusions are made regarding the practical applicability of different working processes, depending on the scope of decision making criteria. Approval of the combined approach is performed with the help of an example of investment appraisal relating to a manufacturing company’s development, using three classic management accounting criteria (payback period, net present value, internal rate of return), and three criteria of a qualitative nature.
The object of this research paper is the way to organize an e-business based on the concept of smart things. In order to achieve the objective of this work - the development of a business model for Social Web of Services - several tasks were set and accomplished: existing concepts of the Internet of Things, the Internet of Service and the Web of Service were described, defined and redefined, making clear the differences and similarities between them. After this, the vision of the Social Web of Service concept is provided and several business models of service providers are reviewed based on the mentioned concept. The business models are presented in graphical view according to the business models representation methodology by Alexander Osterwalder. There is also a presentation of a new business model for a Social Web of Service company. Tis model was developed according to the analysis of existing companies, their strength points and ways of monetization, and main trends in this sphere. Moreover, some limitations of this model along with possible future development areas for it are provided. The offered paper may be considered as a novelty due to the new approach presented in it, identifying the Social Web of Service and the business model developed for companies working according to the for Social Web of Service concept, considering also companies working in areas close to Social Web of Service.
Under current conditions, we see growth in demand for IT outsourcing services. This implies the activation of design and construction processes for data processing centers (DPC). Since a DPC is a complicated and expensive system, there arises the issue of justifying selection of the future project based on the estimated costs of designing and operating data processing centers. This paper analyzes one of the possible complexes of measures to estimate costs for development and operation of data processing centers. The analysis identifi ed main groups of capital cost in development of data processing centers which were not fully taken into account in assessments of the total volume of capital investments in previously proposed methods. The article proposes regression models to evaluate processing center construction projects based on two measures. We propose to estimate the capital cost as a function of the projected fl oor space of service platforms and projected number of server racks. On the basis of the models developed, analysis of the construction sites of processing data centers was conducted. This showed the model’s suitability to real data. The main groups of operating costs for DPC maintenance were established, and a regression model of their evaluation was proposed. Based on the regression equation, we propose to calculate the processing center’s power consumption depending on the area of the service platform or the number of server racks. The operating cost of the data processing center is determined by the power value. Analysis of information on the operating cost of various data processing centers is in fairly good agreement with the calculations obtained on the basis of the model developed. The proposed models make it possible to evaluate with reasonable accuracy the project characteristics of development and subsequent operation of a data processing center.
Modern international economic environment is exposed to profound transformations of business operating conditions due to consequences of the financial crisis. Currently the organizational flexibility becomes the most important characteristic of enterprises. In its turn it presumes the adoption of such organizational structures where business relationships and aligned IT infrastructure are recognized as a specific type of the resource that a company can use to achieve competitive advantage. This research analyzes various issues of flexible organization and enterprise models which influence functionality and architecture constraints of enterprise information systems. For the analysis the authors have applied a transactions mechanism concept and specific design methodology. This paper offers an insight into key properties of four flexible organizational forms in tight connection with Enterprise Ontology formal modeling approach and DEMO, which follow the language-action perspective.
The paper focuses on the questions of infological modeling of performance management systems (PMS), which represent the means of information support of strategic management and help to eliminate the gaps between strategic and operational management levels. Infological models of performance management systems include such elements as information flows, external information objects, functional blocks, functional modules, analytical functions, as well as methods, information systems and processes of management information processing. It is preferable to develop individual infological models for particular organizations relying on reference models, by individualizing them and detailed elaboration. Among the reference models, there is a basic (generic) infological model that represents the most common characteristics of all the enterprises and organizations, regardless their types and industry affiliation. The procedure of transition from the basic infological model to an individual model includes four stages. In the first stage, detailed elaboration of enlarged information flows is performed: each of the enlarged information flows is subdivided into more detailed flows, taking into consideration the peculiarities of a concrete organization. The detailing is provided taking into account types and sources of information, as well its affiliation with particular divisions, business segments and geographical segments. In the second stage, relationships between inputs and outputs of functional modules are discovered. Relying on such relations, preliminary (necessitating additional specification) analytical functions are established. In the third stage, the processes of collection, storage and processing of management information that are available within preliminary analytical functions are defined. Finally, in the fourth stage, the final versions of analytical functions are created by detailing and re-organization of previously defined preliminary functions. The paper also indicates the possibility of an alternative approach, where developing an individual model starts with the definition of analytical functions.
According to most analysts, the era of extensive growth in the telecommunications market has almost fi nished. The ongoing competition between leading telecommunications companies is bringing the problem of developing a rational telecommunications policy to the forefront. The ever-changing telecommunications market, subscribers’ preferences, the expanding variety of services, the need for updating user data, the inadequate effi ciency of the existing systems to form exact subscriber defi nitions demonstrate the need for more fl exible tariff methods and policy. In spite of Russian and foreign scientists taking into consideration the pricing problems in forming tariff plans, the main accent is placed on price formation according to the profi ts either of the whole telecommunications fi eld or company expenses in most attempts. The problem of diff erentiation of tariff plan characteristics with the purpose of subscribers’ preference calculations has not been suffi ciently explored. Moreover, the structural problems of tariff plans, where phone subscribers’ preferences should be taken into consideration, and the whole tariff policy, in which formation of the entire complex of existent and prospective tariff plans should be taken into consideration, have not been properly researched. For solving these problems, we have off ered a model of forming telecommunications company tariff policy using methods of intellectual data analysis and taking into consideration discovered preferences of subscribers and investors.
In modern society, skills of working with information play a significant role. The influence of information in our everyday lives is rapidly increasing, while methods of data processing remain the same.
Research is being directed at problems of data processing and visualization of information, which become more popular with each year. This paper describes infological models, a new method of data visualization and information processing based on technologies of information presentation, as well as on principles of semantic networks, open data and data banks.
The technology of infological models represents a new approach to data storage and exchange which enables us to look at information processing in a new way. Based on principles of open data, semantic networks and data banks, the concept seeks to define the set of entities and relations, based on which an independent information block is displayed as a block diagram, which is easy to understand for an average user with a computer.
This work provides a brief overview of the information overload problem, describes the technology of infological models, its general principles and contains an application of mentioned methods in e-commerce using the example of knowledge bases, news portals, on-line shops, smart house and Internet of Things, with description of features and advantages, ending with an overall conclusion.
This article proposes a methodology for analyzing an organization management system and selecting the most relevant strategy to enhance its information efficiency. Information efficiency is determined through the amount of information that is required to ensure the coordination and motivation processes. We discuss four organizational design strategies aimed at improving information efficiency. Two of them are associated with a reduction of the amount of information required for management: creation of buffers (stocks of raw materials, work in progress and surplus resources) and system decomposition into independent operating units. Two other strategies are aimed at increasing the organization capabilities to process information, i.e. develop information systems and create a context facilitating information exchange.
It is shown that the strategy of creating buffers leads to inefficiency, but it spontaneously occurs under conditions of the lack of information. The implementation of other strategies requires the organization’s efforts. The policy of measuring the information efficiency of the organization is discussed, and since at present it is hardly possible to develop a single method, it is recommended that one use benchmarking. Estimates of the information volumes which are being handled by high-technology machine-building enterprises in Russia and abroad are provided. It is demonstrated that due to underdevelopment of the technological infrastructure domestic enterprises are forced to process overly great amounts of data, which leads to information overload and, as a consequence, creation of buffers at all production stages. The result is an overall inefficiency of the enterprise as compared to similar foreign enterprises, and this gap cannot be overcome only by creation of enterprise information systems. In this regard, we present an example of production system decomposition which enables one to reduce the amounts of management information.
Data integration in enterprises is a crucial but at the same time costly and challenging problem. While business-critical information is stored in ERP, CRM, SCM and in Content Management systems the integration of such becomes even more critical when integrating with the growing information space on the Web. The IT industry has developed over the last decade integration solutions based on Master Data Management, Business Intelligence and the Service Oriented Architecture. However, we become increasingly aware that such technologies are not sufficient to ultimately solve all data integration challenges. Under the vision of context-aware services and integration we propose to apply the technology of the Linked Data paradigm. This approach seems to be promising, as scientists in the evolution of the Semantic Web have used it. We discuss Linked Data approaches in relation to the value chain and information integration of heterogeneous content and present an example of a CRM business process applying the Linked Data principles.
This article is devoted to the problems of formalization of decision-making in the choice of development strategy in an organization and the ways to implement this strategy. A prioritization method is proposed that allows converting qualitative indicators into qualitative variables by means of pairwise comparison of the objects. As opposed to a simple summation of estimates preferences, this computational algorithm allows one to take into account indirect benefits of all the objects under consideration. The approaches to the ranking of experts and challenges an organization faces at various stages of its development are set forth. The algorithm is validated on the example of a particular company. The estimates of the priorities of experts are provided; the tree of tasks for which the comprehensive priorities are designed (taking into account the importance and relevance of expert tasks for each expert) is constructed; the analysis of the results for different conditions of the external and internal environment of the organization is made. Recommendations are given on the choice of the deviation values for matrix of pairwise comparisons of objects, as well as a reasonable number of iterations of the calculation of the integrated power of these objects. The practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the proposed algorithm and methodology for ranking of experts, tasks and subtasks may be used to prepare management accounting regulations to improve decision-making methods, taking into account the strategic and tactical objectives of the organization.
This paper analyses the possibility of using mobile technologies and applications in the Russian healthcare system and evaluates the opportunities for its further development. The research provides an overview of global trends in digital healthcare with some examples of the best solutions for eHealth (healthcare practice supported by electronic processes and communication). An analysis is made of the Russian medical system in order to identify the main stages of its formation, achievements and areas for improvement. The authors also conducted research into the current Russian medical healthcare system aimed at identifying gaps and concerns regarding security, reliability and service availability for on-line and mobile services and personal health records in Russia. Certain diffi culties in the establishment of an up-to-date healthcare system in Russia with examples of barriers are also analyzed to get a better understanding of the prospects for mobile healthcare development. Starting from the premise that support for information technologies is essential to medical healthcare development, the paper gives an overview of the current IT initiatives of the Russian government in the fi eld of medicine and provides examples of the independent applications of Russian software developers for digital and mobile healthcare. As a result of the research, three possible development scenarios of Russian mobile healthcare are described. The barriers identifi ed as well as worldwide healthcare transformation aspects such as cost reduction and personalization are considered in the possible scenarios.