О состоянии статистики занятости инвалидов в России
Ensuring the equal employment opportunities for persons with disabilities is one of the priorities of public support for people with disabilities in Russia. This determines the need for detailed, reliable and timely statistics on the position of persons with disabilities in the labor market. The authors analyzed the content and quality of statistics collected in this area, considering, in particular, the recent methodological, organizational and statistical innovations - inclusion of the questions about disability status in the key population surveys and creation of the Federal Register of Disabled Persons (FRD).
The article notes that to date, estimates of the employment rate of persons with disabilities on the basis of administrative data and labor force survey differ, which justifies the need for an additional analysis of the methodology of these indicators. Thus, data of the FRD contains information about all people with disability status in Russia, but information on their employment covers mostly employment in the formal sector. While the population survey data, according to the authors, on the contrary, make it possible to take into account all forms of employment, but face the problem of underestimating of people with disabilities due to the design of the questions used, the reluctance of individuals to declare disability, and due to the fact that some groups of people with disabilities are less likely to be respondents of the surveys. In addition, the administrative data and the labor force survey data differ in the length of the reference period and methodology of calculation of annual indicators.
According to the authors analysis, administrative data reflects the number of employed persons with disabilities more objectively, while for detailed characteristics of disabled people position in the labor market population survey data may be used.
Ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2012 in Russia and formation of a national strategy for social policy for persons with disabilities demanded the creation of a system for monitoring the implementation of its provisions and performance evaluation. The article discusses the formation of a system for monitoring the status of persons with disabilities in Russia and the issues related to observance of their rights, taking into account the international experience of conducting surveys on the situation of persons with disabilities.
In Russia, there is a large-scale system for collecting statistics on the status of persons with disabilities, covering 10 agencies. However, it is important for objective monitoring to use the capabilities of population censuses and special sample surveys of persons with disabilities, including those living in institutional settings. This will reveal the peculiarities of the status of persons with disabilities and the attitude of society towards them. In 2015, during the micro census, an analysis was made for the first time related to the extent of the incidence of disability in Russia. Federal State Statistics Service conducts a number of selective surveys affecting health problems and the peculiarities of vital activities of persons with disabilities. Survey data provide an overview of the incomes of persons with disabilities, the factors that affect their health status, the accessibility of social services, nutrition, the structure of free time, and social inclusion. It is necessary to form sampling frames for conducting a special sample survey of persons with disabilities, taking into account the Federal Register of Persons with Disabilities, which will allow obtaining representative data in the context of various social and demographic groups of persons with disabilities.
The article describes the status of persons with disabilities, based on the existing model of statistical observation. The statistics show a decrease in the number of persons with disabilities, which is largely due to changes in the criteria for determining disability. First of all, the decrease occurs due to the decrease in the number of people recognized as persons with disabilities. The share of disabled workers is growing. Among young persons with disabilities, men prevail, and there is a superiority of women in more mature age. The share of oncological diseases increases in the structure of disability.
It is necessary to make wider use of sample surveys of persons with disabilities in the course of revealing the situation with observance of their rights, satisfaction with the quality of life, assessing the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in Russia. The introduction of changes in the program of sample surveys conducted by state statistics bodies will provide more complete and objective information on the implementation of the state strategy for the persons with disabilities and the observance of their rights.
The purpose of the article is to demonstrate how the use of administrative data can promptly and with low costs improve the accuracy and informativeness of official statistical indicators of labor market. The Russian official labor statistics is currently use the only two sources of statistical information: statistical reporting of enterprises and population surveys. The authors show that the available indicators are inconsistent with each other and do not meet the needs of users. The example of Moscow city shows that the available administrative data (data from the Pension Fund of the Russian Federation) allow both to increase the accuracy of the already calculated indicators of employment and wages through the full coverage of respondents, and to introduce new indicators that are currently not calculated by official statistics (wages of Russian citizens and foreigners, salaries of people working for several employers, etc.). The limitations of the Pension Fund’s data, as well as recommendations for the incorporating administrative data into the system of official statistics at the regional and national levels, are discussed.
In this study the authors researched the task to calculate the direct costs of economic entities in the collection and provision of primary statistical data. The authors developed and tested the Methodology for estimating the costs associated with gathering data, completing, calculating and verifying values of indicators of reporting forms. The authors calculated the direct costs of budgetary and commercial organizations in the social sphere to collect and provide forms of reporting and government costs – to collect and aggregate. The versatility of the Methodology allows to use it also for costs of the respondents to the collection of other types of reporting.
We share approaches on the allocation of private and social costs and assessed costs of opportunism of economic agents in the collection and provision of official statistical information, using the author's method of collection and analysis of the respondent’s opinions on the Internet.
The authors propose a new approach to estimate information costs in value terms.
Ratification of the Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities denoted transition to a new understanding that disability results from the interaction between persons with impairments and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinders their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others. The objective of this research is to suggest improvements to Russian disability employment statistics in compliance with modern model of disability on the basis of the international experience. Based on the lessons learned from the experience of countries of the European Union, Australia, Canada the authors formulated recommendations on designating groups of people with disabilities and recognizing barriers in the labor market that are be applicable to the existing Rosstat surveys and observations. Firstly, to avoid measurement errors in the number of persons officially recognized as disabled, it is recommended to use a separate question about the degree of disability. Secondly, it is proposed to use questions about longstanding health conditions and basic activities limitations. Thirdly, an additional module to Labor force survey may be included in accordance with experience of the EU countries. This module is aimed at identifying barriers in the labor market for the disabled people. It is reasonable to include in it questions on the work limitations due to health conditions and basic activities limitations, requirements in special assistance, employer awareness of the disability status, health conditions and basic activities limitations of the individual; other reasons of work limitations (not including health reasons). The questions on the barriers in the labor market have never been considered before in the Russian statistics.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.