Compared with other emerging and former command economies, Russia has low levels of entrepreneurial activity and exceptionally low levels of reported entrepreneurial intentions. Drawing on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper aims to examine the determinants of entrepreneurial intentions in Russia.
Using individual level data from two waves (2013 and 2018) of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey, the paper presents a range of semi-nonparametric logistic regressions estimating the determinants of reported entrepreneurial intention among the Russian adult population not already engaged in entrepreneurial activity. These data allow for the first empirical exploration of the TPB in the Russian context.
The results provide evidence in support of two (“attitudes” and “perceived behavioural control”), from three, origins of the theory of planned behaviour. Firstly, positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship, in the form of employment seeking and direct (own experience) or indirect (experience through social networks) entrepreneurial knowledge are both positively associated with intention. Secondly, individuals who consider their environment to be conducive to entrepreneurship and who believe they have the knowledge and skills required to be entrepreneurs are more likely to intend entrepreneurial action.
In view of the limited entrepreneurial activity and low levels of reported entrepreneurial intention in Russia, it is important to understand the drivers of these intentions if the appropriate policy responses are to be identified and adopted. This research represents the first substantive efforts to comprehensively examine the determinants of entrepreneurial intentions for Russia and allows us to propose several policy relevant conclusions.