Socioeconomic differences in mortality among 27 million economically active Germans: a cross-sectional analysis of the German Pension Fund data
Objectives. To assess disparities in mortality by socioeconomic status in Germany.
Design and participants. We analyse a large administrative dataset of the German Pension Fund (DRV), including 27 million person-years of exposure and 42 000 deaths in 2013. The data cover the economically active population, stratified by sex and by East and West.
Outcome measures. Age-standardised mortality rates and Poisson regression mortality rate ratios (MRRs).
Results. The risk of dying increases with decreasing income: the MRRs of the lowest to the highest income quintile are 4.66 (95% CI 4.48 to 4.85) among men and 3.06 (95% CI 2.90 to 3.23) among women. The impact of income attenuates after controlling for education and other explanatory variables, especially for females. In the fully controlled model for females, individual income is a weaker predictor of mortality, but there is a clear educational mortality gradient. In the fully controlled model, the MRRs of the unemployed to the employed are 2.09 (95% CI 2.03 to 2.15) among men and 2.01 (95% CI 1.92 to 2.10) among women. The risk of dying is around half as high among foreigners as among German citizens. The socioeconomic disparities are greater among East than West German men.
Conclusions. Low socioeconomic status is a major determinant of excess adult mortality in Germany. The persisting East-West differences in male adult mortality can be explained by the higher socioeconomic status of men living in the West, rather than by contextual differences between East and West. These differences can be further monitored using DRV data.
This Chapter contains an analysis of long-term trends of mortality, life expectancy, and infant mortality in Russia and its regions. Special attention is paid to the aspects of traffic safety policy in Europe and Russia. The policy on reducing mortality and increasing life expectancy in Russia is also considered.
Objective To examine the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF), its impacts on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality, and the associations between AF and inflammatory and serum biomarkers in a population-based sample of Muscovites. Methods The study is a secondary analysis of data from the Stress, Aging and Health in Russia (SAHR) survey that includes information on 1800 individuals with an average age of 68.5 years at baseline, and on their subsequent mortality during 7.4 years on average. AF is detected by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and 24-hour Holter monitoring. The statistical analysis includes proportional hazard and logistic regression models. Results Of the 1732 participants with relevant Holter data, AF was detected in 100 (74 by ECG and Holter, 26 by Holter only). The prevalence of AF was 5.8% for men and 7.4% for women. The fully adjusted model showed strongly elevated hazard of CVD and all-cause mortality in men and women with long non-self-limiting AF (LAF). LAF was found to be negatively associated with elevated total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and to be positively associated with elevated markers of inflammation in women. Conclusions The study assessed for the first time the prevalence and the risks of death related to AF among older Russians. LAF was shown to be a strong and independent predictor of CVD and all-cause mortality. AF is unlikely to contribute to the large excess male mortality in Russia. The finding that one-quarter of AF cases were detected only by Holter monitoring demonstrates the usefulness of diagnostics with prolonged ECG registration
The monograph is devoted to the problems arising in the analysis of demographic processes, the calculation of net rates and assessment of reserves in the major life insurance contract. The results of studies involving various related parties of the analyzed issues. For example, given a detailed comparative analysis of pre- and disadvantages of organization of the insurance market in Russia and abroad. With used - vaniem various techniques built a ranking of countries in terms of development of the market under study.
The basis of actuarial calculations in the basic life insurance contracts are demo graphic processes: in particular, information about the mortality rate. The foundation for the construction of a net rates and valuation reserves in the life insurance contract is the data of mortality tables, which are based, in turn, is an indicator of how Vero die before reaching next age interval. In this regard, the authors present the theoretical aspects of the construction of the net rates and valuation reserves in life insurance contracts. The paper discusses methods of constructing mortality tables , raised the problem of statistical analysis of demographic processes in actuarial calculations, an overview of the basic formulas used to derive the net rates and valuation reserves in life insurance contracts.
The authors of the classification of the Russian Federation in terms of economic and demographic character. Some representatives of the obtained clusters The results of the study of the dynamics of demographic processes. It analyzes the main trends in life expectancy at age and sex and the regional context.
Of course, the authors have paid special attention to the analysis of the impact of demographic, financial factors on change of the tariff policy of life insurance contracts, as well as the impact on the rate and size of the allowance conditions of the contract. The research data for the city of Moscow as a financial and information center of Russia, which significantly affects the development of the insurance market as a whole (not only in the life insurance sector).
The results of these studies may be interested in a wide range of professionals in the field of economics, actuarial calculations in life insurance analysts.
The topic of demography in recent years excites a lot of discussion among politicians, economists and sociologists. These discussions are reflected in the media including on the Internet: the articles addresses issues of fertility and maternity capital, mortality and health, migration and the labor market. However in these articles it is possible to detect certain errors and inaccuracies which are associated with the use of demographic indicators and their interpretation. This article conducted a content analysis of the Russian Internet editions (mass media), contains the basic errors in these publications in terms of major demographic processes and categories, and the classification of those errors. We have found five types of errors and inaccuracies: the discrepancy of reality, stylistic inaccuracies, inaccuracies in the wording, errors and inaccuracies of interpretation of demographic processes, inaccuracies of use of indicators and terms. Although crude rates are mostly used in the media due to their plainness, for comparison between regions and for a time it is essential to use special demographic indicators such as age-standardized mortality rate, life expectancy, total fertility rate and other. The article would be useful not only to journalists and to the main newsmakers in the person of officials, but also to students who write essays and abstracts on the subject of demography, and to all of them who feel a lack of demographic knowledge.
Introduction and Aims
In the 1990s, a strong inverse relationship between life expectancy (LE) in Russia and mortality from alcohol poisoning was observed. This association is remarkable as this cause accounts for less than 2% of deaths each year. It can be explained by treating the alcohol poisoning mortality as the best available measure in Russia of the population prevalence of harmful drinking in any year which in turn associated with mortality from a wide range of causes. This study analyses the evolving relationship of LE with this mortality‐based measure of harmful drinking since 1965, and places it in a policy context.
Design and Methods
We examine three periods: 1965–1984, a period of gradual LE decline; 1984–2003, a period of massive LE fluctuations; and 2003–2017, a period of LE improvement. Pearson's correlation coefficients and a linear relationship between annual changes in LE and alcohol poisoning were estimated for each period.
The strongest negative correlation between changes in LE and alcohol poisonings was found in 1984–2003. Over the period 2003–2017 a consistent positive LE trend emerged that was statistically independent of alcohol poisoning.
Discussion and Conclusions
These results suggest that in the period from the mid‐2000s a growth of LE in Russia was to a large extent independent of changes in the population prevalence of harmful drinking. While there has been a reduction in mortality at ages 15–64, at older ages mortality reduction unrelated to alcohol has become an increasingly important driver of overall mortality improvements.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.