The occurrence of illusory conjunctions correlates with the spatial noise in peripheral vision
Illusory conjunctions (IC) refer to errors in which an observer correctly reports features present in the display, but incorrectly pairs features or parts from multiple objects. There is a long-standing debate in the literature about the nature of ICs; for example, whether they arise from the lack of focused attention (Treisman & Schmidt, 1982) or from lossy peripheral representations (Rosenholtz et al., 2012). Here, we test the hypothesis that the occurrence of ICs relates to spatial uncertainty of features falling within the same noisy “window”. According to this idea, ICs occur when the spatial uncertainty is large compared to the distance between items, causing confusion over which features belong to which item. In Experiment 1, we directly measured the spatial noise at 3°, 6°, 9°, 12° from fixation. A compact “crowd” of four dots briefly appeared, followed by the presentation of a probe circle at various distances from the “crowd”. Observers had to respond whether any dot had fallen within the probed region. The probability of perceiving the dots as outside the probe as a function of distance provides a measure of spatial noise as a function of eccentricity. In Experiment 2, we presented four differently colored and oriented bars, located on an invisible circle with a diameter varying from 1° to 3.5° (the “separation”), and centered at one of three eccentricities (4°, 8°, 12°). Participants had to report the color, orientation, and location of any of the bars. The number of correct answers, guesses (reporting non-presented features), and ICs were estimated. The number of IC increased with eccentricity and decreased with separation. There is good resemblance between the spatial noise and the IC pattern. We conclude that there can be an overlap between the mechanisms of spatial localization and IC in peripheral vision.
The volume units different approaches to perceptual metaphor analysis.
The article features the way Japanese cultural discourse is reflected in literary and essayistic works of Swiss author Adolf Muschg.
he publication presents the overview of the content of special discipline – pramāṇavāda (doctrine of the instruments of valid cognition), which formed in the Indian systems of philosophical knowledge – the darśanas. The review begins with the fixation of pramāṇavāda’s similarities with the Western epistemology and logic, with the determining its structure and a brief excursion into the history of its development. Then the author points out the influence of Panini’s grammar (IV century BC) on the Akṣapāda’s (III–IV centuries) choice of the conceptual framework of the pramāṇavāda. The structure of pramāṇavāda was determined on the basis of the «Nyāya-sūtras» of Akṣapāda, the writings of Buddhist Dignāga (C. 450‒520) and Jain canonical works by Umāsvāti (II–III centuries) and Kundakunda (III–IV centuries); the contents of the main logical-epistemological concepts are revealed on the basic texts of the eight darśanas. The author draws attention to the role of the concept of vyavāhara (conventional usage of the words, and everyday practice), which influenced the specificity of critical discourse in India, she reveals content of the ideas of the linguistic reference which had place in the traditional Indian philosophy. The contents of the basic concepts of pramāṇavāda (the subject of cognition, the knowing consciousness, the perceptual abilities, supernatural cognitive abilities, the ideals of knowledge, aims of knowledge, truth, the everyday practice, the instruments of valid cognition, an inference in Nyāya and Buddhism, «points of view» of the Jains, the theory of debate) are revealed through their comparison with the Western logical-epistemological ideas. Specifics of pramāṇavāda are seen, along with the uniqueness of solutions of theoretical problems, in the absence of a symbolic language for the analysis of reasoning, in the presence of a particular formalism (which consists in the fixation of the traditional methods of polemics), and in the conservation of limited freedom of critical discourse in a formalized skepticism.
During visual search, selecting a target facilitates search for similar targets in the future, known as search priming. During bistable perception, in turn, perceiving one interpretation facilitates perception of the same interpretation in the future, a form of sensory memory. Previously, we investigated the relation between these history effects by asking: can visual search influence perception of a subsequent ambiguous display and can perception of an ambiguous display influence subsequent visual search? We found no evidence for such influences, however. Here, we investigated one potential factor that might have prevented such influences from arising: lack of retinal overlap between the ambiguous stimulus and the search array items. In the present work, we therefore interleaved presentations of an ambiguous stimulus with search trials in which the target or distractor occupied the same retinal location as the ambiguous stimulus. Nevertheless, we again found no evidence for influences of visual search on bistable perception, thus demonstrating no close relation between search priming and sensory memory. We did, however, find that visual search items primed perception of a subsequent ambiguous stimulus at the same retinal location, regardless of whether they were a target or a distractor item: a form of perceptual priming. Interestingly, the strengths of search priming and this perceptual priming were correlated on a trial-to-trial basis, suggesting that a common underlying factor influences both.
The paper examines the properties of heavy as a perceptual concept, based on evidence from 11 languages. We demonstrate that the semantics of this concept is heterogeneous; lexemes of this field can be used in situations of at least three types: Lifting, Shifting and Weighing. These situations are either lexicalised as separate words or they converge in a single lexeme in various combinations following certain strategies. We also argue that different metaphorical extensions correspond to different situation types; this allows us to use analysis of metaphoric shifts as an additional instrument to establish the semantic structure of direct meanings.
We examined the effects of perceptual set on Ponzo and Müller-Lyer illusions, revealing the existence of the illusory aftereffect in a sensorimotor domain. Our findings demonstrate that the effects of exposure to illusory stimuli in a sensorimotor domain are hand dependent and that there is a correlation between the direction of the aftereffect and the variant of illusion as well as a correlation between the speed of the hand movements over the neutral stimuli during test trials and the type of visual illusion shown during the exposure phase. The results support our hypotheses that: (i) the different illusions have their origins at different stages of the processing of visual information and (ii) effects of illusory perceptual set depend on hemispheric-specific mental representations, which might be activated by the movements of the right or the left hand.
The paper looks at the question of relationship between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Korea. Notwithstanding the explicitly and commonly shared aim of establishing and maintaining peace on the Korean Peninsula and in the broader North-East Asia region, Russian and Korean public perceptions of each other’s foreign policies result remarkably altered. As results of the recent joint research project (2016) by the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (WCIOM) and the Hankuk University demonstrate, over 40 % of Koreans think that Russia would take the DPRK side in case of a military conflict on the peninsula, while almost 60% of the Russian public think that Russia will act as a neutral mediator to resolve the conflict. Both the Russian and the Korean public admit that bilateral relations are strongly conditioned by the remaining stereotypes and policy fluctuations.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.