Социальная эксклюзия людей с инвалидностью: успешные стратегии преодоления
The purpose of this research is to identify the common elements of successful strategies in overcoming social exclusion. The success criterion is an obtaining of social recognition by people with disabilities due to their social, labor and other activities. For the purpose of the research we performed ten biographical interviews with people with disabilities living an active lifestyle. Results of the research include a description of common elements of successful strategies of social exclusion overcoming for the following activities of respondents: labor and social activities as well as obtaining professional education. In addition to that, we have identified respondents’ objectives and how they plan their social exclusion overcoming activities and the resources they use. The main outcome of this research is that the key for successful social exclusion overcoming by people with disabilities is their willingness to overcome social exclusion. Each successful case of social exclusion overcoming has a strategy behind it: an adequate estimation of available resources, rational choice of tools and ways to use them and tactics for external structures utilization.
The concept of social exclusion is currently regarded by researchers in social sciences as a multi-dimensional phenomenon which covers a number of interrelated aspects at a time. It normally involves exclusion from economic life, social services, public life and social networks. In 2010, the European Union adopted “Strategy for Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Growth” for the period until 2020 which identified clear and quantifiable parameters for reducing the number of the socially excluded in the EU countries. However, no consensus is yet reached at the international level as to the definition of the concept of social exclusion as to the methodology to measure it. The European Union, World Bank, OECD and UN agencies are still using different indicators for assessing poverty, deprivation and social exclusion. In the Russian Federation, the category of social exclusion is rather a theoretical concept than a specific instrument for transforming and implementing social policies. Most Russian studies are discussing the problems of measuring social exclusion at the national level or among specific socially vulnerable population groups. Meanwhile there are now studies concerning spatial dimension of the level of social exclusion of the population of Russian regions. This study is designed to fill this existing gap.
Apart from the public sphere and the norms set by society, the private sphere plays an important role in the lives of the disabled, including the personal experience of disability at a micro level: in their families, everyday routines and romantic relationships. In this chapter, issues of family structure are considered using a narrative analysis of interviews with women who use wheelchairs. Various cultural, social, economic and political determinants effect the formation of certain types of family structure and attitudes towards family life. At the same time, they interrelate with biographical factors that reinforce or weaken the limits of freedom and private life. Using narrative analysis, I demonstrate what role family plays in constructing the identity of a person with a disability, and how family members act as coauthors of individual biographies. This can be seen in those dilemmas of family life associated with the feelings, sexuality and emotional stability at the micro-level of the life experience and identification of women with disabilities.
The paper focused on the issues of representation of disability in a modern culture and historical evolution of this concept.
Presenting the findings of a major research project, this volume investigates the regional, ethnic and socio-cultural aspects of poverty and social exclusion in Russia in recent years. In-depth household interviews and survey data allowed teams from the UK, Denmark and Russia to compare different societies and communities in Russia across several different themes: the definition of poverty in different regional, ethnic and socio-cultural settings; the reproduction and formation of poverty subcultures in different societies and communities; the ethnic/national and political values of poor people; the readiness of poor people for social protest; and a comparison of Russia with other EU countries. Offering a wealth of original data collected following a period of rapid impoverishment of the Russian population, the study considers the challenge this presents to Western European models of poverty and social exclusion.
There are over thirty million disabled people in Russia and Eastern Europe, yet their voices are rarely heard in scholarly studies of life and well-being in the region. This book brings together new research by internationally recognised local and non-native scholars in a range of countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. It covers, historically, the origins of legacies that continue to affect well-being and policy in the region today, discusses disability in culture and society, highlighting the broader conditions that construct disability and in which disabled people must build their identities and well-being, provides in-depth biographical profiles that outline what living with disabilities in the region is like, and examines policy interventions, including international influences, recent reforms and the difficulties of implementing inclusive, community-based care. The book will be of interest both to regional specialists, for whom the problem of declining standards of health and well-being is a crucial concern, and to scholars of disability and social policy internationally
The paper uses the data of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Study to analyze the change in the state of health of the Russian population in the post-Soviet period. Age is regarded as a factor with a potential to influence incidence of chronic disease, disability and self-preservation behavior. The authors stress the importance of such factors of health deterioration as smoking and alcohol consumption.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.